Presentation on theme: "School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Support"— Presentation transcript:
1School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Rob Horner, George SugaiUniversity of Oregon and University of ConnecticutHosted by CAL-STAT; Riverside County SELPA
2GoalsProvide a logic for School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Support (PBIS).Define the core features of School-wide PBISDefine the implementation approachDefine the outcomes achieved by schools that adopt school-wide PBIS to criterion
3Main MessagesSupporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains.School-wide PBS is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success.Randomized control trials now in pressImplementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected.
4Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Never stop doing what is already workingAlways look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effectAvoid defining a large number of goalsDo a small number of things wellDo not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.
5Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Collect and use data for decision-makingAdapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context.FamiliesStudentsFacultyFiscal-political structureEstablish policy clarity before investing in implementationLAUSD Discipline Foundation Policy.pptx
6Logic for School-wide PBIS Schools face a set of difficult challenges todayMultiple expectations (Academic accomplishment, Social competence, Safety)Students arrive at school with widely differing understandings of what is socially acceptable.Traditional “get tough” and “zero tolerance” approaches are insufficient.Individual student interventionsEffective, but can’t meet needSchool-wide discipline systemsEstablish a social culture within which both social and academic success is more likely
7The Challenge80% of principals indicate that “too much time is spent dealing with disruptive and dangerous students.”National Association of Elementary School Principals, 199781% of teachers polled state that their worst behaved students are a barrier to effective education in their classroomsPublic Agenda, 2004
8The ChallengeMore than 50% of all crime in the United States is committed by 5-7% of youth between the ages of 10-20APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993Each school day 100,000 students in the United States bring weapons to schoolWalker, 1994
9The ChallengeExclusion and punishment are the most common responses to conduct disorders in schools.Lane & Murakami, (1987)Rose, (1988)Nieto, (1999)Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, (2002)Exclusion and punishment are ineffective at producing long-term reduction in problem behaviorCostenbader & Markson (1998)
10The ChallengePunishing problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out.Mayer, 1995Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991Skiba & Peterson, 1999
11Research FindingsReviews of over 600 studies on how to reduce school discipline problems indicate that the least effective response to school violence are:Counseling (talking therapies)PsychotherapyPunishmentGottfredson, 1997Lipsey, 1991; 1992Tolan & Guerra, 1994Elliott, Hamburg, Williams, 1998
12Research FindingsThe same research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are:Social Skills TrainingAcademic RestructuringBehavioral InterventionsGottfredson, 1997Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998Tolan & Guerra, 1994Lipsey, 1991; 1992
13What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support? School-wide PBIS: A systems approach for establishing the social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to achieve both social and academic success for all students.Evidence-based features of SW-PBSPreventionDefine and teach positive social expectationsAcknowledge positive behaviorArrange consistent consequences for problem behaviorOn-going collection and use of data for decision-makingContinuum of intensive, individual interventions.Administrative leadership – Team-based implementation (Systems that support effective practices)
14Establishing a Social Culture Common LanguageMEMBERSHIPCommon ExperienceCommon Vision/Values
15School-wide PBIS Supporting Social Competence, Academic Achievement and SafetySchool-wide PBISOUTCOMESSupportingStudentBehaviorSupportingDecisionMakingPRACTICESDATASWPBS: Four ElementsSWPBS builds from a focus on student Outcomes: academic achievement, social competence, and safety.SWPBS “Practices” are the behaviors of adults that affect how students perform. These are the daily, classroom, and on-going discipline practices of the schoolSWPBS “Systems” are the organizational decisions and structures that support effective STAFF Behavior. A major strength of SWPBS is the emphasis on practices delivered WITH the systems needed to support the practices.The use of data for decision-making is the single most important system within SWPBS. This element is used both to ensure the SWPBS practices are tailored to the local context/culture, and to benefit the continuous regeneration needed for sustained implementation.SYSTEMSSupportingStaff Behavior
16Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorSCHOOL-WIDEPOSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings~80% of Students
17Identify existing practices by tier Specify outcome for each effort CONTINUUM of SWPBSTERTIARY PREVENTIONFunction-based supportWraparound/PCPSpecial EducationAuditIdentify existing practices by tierSpecify outcome for each effortEvaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectivenessEliminate/integrate based on outcomesEstablish decision rules (RtI)~5%~15%SECONDARY PREVENTIONCheck in/outTargeted social skills instructionPeer-based supportsSocial skills clubPRIMARY PREVENTIONTeach & encourage positive SW expectationsProactive SW disciplineEffective instructionParent engagement~80% of Students
18School-wide Systems (All students all settings all times) Create a positive school culture:School environment is predictable1. common language2. common vision (understanding of expectations)3. common experience (everyone knows)School environment is positiveregular recognition for positive behaviorSchool environment is safeviolent and disruptive behavior is not toleratedSchool environment is consistentadults use similar expectations.
19Define School-wide Expectations for Social Behavior Identify 3-5 ExpectationsShort statementsPositive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing)MemorableExamples:Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults
20Teach Behavioral Expectations Transform broad school-wide Expectations into specific, observable behaviors.Use the Expectations by Settings MatrixTeach in the actual settings where behaviors are to occurTeach (a) the words, and (b) the actions.Build a social culture that is predictable, and focused on student success.
22Teaching Behavioral Expectations Teach behavior the same way you teach other subjectsDefine the concept to be learned (the label)Provide rationale/ logicProvide positive examples, and emphasize the key features of the positive examplesJuxtapose positive examples with negative examples to build precisionPractice positive performance with recognition
24Continuum of Consequences for Behavioral Errors Page 37Do not ignore problem behavior.(unless ignoring is part of a specific program)Define specific teacher responses for “minor” and “major” problem behavior.Define a general “rule” for when a teacher should send a student to the office.Do NOT expect office referrals to change behavior.Use office referrals to (a) prevent problem behavior from being rewarded, (b) prevent escalation, and (c) prevent problem behavior from interrupting on-going instruction.Use teaching to change behaviorSee for a list of behavioral definitions for problem behavior.
25On-going Reward of Appropriate Behavior Every faculty and staff member acknowledges appropriate behavior.5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative contactsSystem that makes acknowledgement easy and simple for students and staff.Different strategies for acknowledging appropriate behavior (small frequent rewards more effective)Beginning of class recognitionRafflesOpen gymSocial acknowledgement
26Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________ Displayed the Cougar Trait of: Respect Responsibility Caring Citizenship (Circle the trait you observed) Signature _____________________________________________ If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.
27To build staff moral we began recognizing the positive things we were seeing among the adults in our building.
28Are Rewards Dangerous?“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”Judy Cameron, 2002Cameron, 2002Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001“The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven”Steven Reiss, 2005Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practices. School Psychology Review, 33,Use of rewards inEducation
29“What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” “What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.Create working environments where employees:1. Know what is expected2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly3. Receive recognition each week for good work.4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
30Predictable Consistent Positive Safe Action: Rate your school culture 1. Use a student perspective 2. Use a staff perspectiveLow HighPredictableConsistentPositiveSafe
31Use of Data for Decision-making Use of data to guide implementationTeam Implementation ChecklistUse of student data (office discipline referrals) to assess impact.
36Invest in Sustainability Systems It is not adequate to invest in practices that work, if those practices do not sustainGlenn Latham
37Practices and Systems for School-wide Behavior Support Define expectationsTeach expectationsMonitor expected behaviorAcknowledge expected behaviorCorrect behavioral errors (continuum of consequences)Use information for decision-makingSystemsAdmin LeadershipTeam-based implementationDefined commitmentAllocation of FTEBudgeted supportDevelopment of decision-driven information systemFormal policies
38Why should we be committed to implementation of SWPBS? SWPBS benefits childrenReduction in problem behaviorOffice discipline referralsSuspensionsExpulsionsImproved effectiveness for intensive interventionsIncreased student engagementRisk and protective factors improveStudents perceive school as a safer, more supportive environmentImproved academic performanceWhen coupled with effective instructionImproved family involvement
47Key Evaluation Questions Is PBS associated with school safety? School Safety SurveyRisk FactorsVandalism FightsGang Activity BullyingPoverty Drug UseProtective FactorsCrisis Plan Positive school climateSchool-wide discipline High expectationsStudents engaged Positive Student-Teacher Relationships
48Why should we be committed to implementation of SW-PBIS? Benefits to faculty and staff:Improved consistency across facultyBetter collaboration in support of individual studentsImproved classroom managementClassroom routinesStrategies for preventing and pre-empting problem behaviorReduced faculty absenteeismIncreased faculty retentionImproved substitute performance/perceptionIncreased ratings of faculty “effectiveness”Staff perceive themselves as more effective due to coherent planning, improved student behavior, effective strategies for addressing problems.
49Why should we be committed to implementation of SW-PBIS? Benefits to District/CommunityImproved cost effectiveness1 ODR = 15 min staff time; 45 min student timeSustained effects across administrator, faculty, staff, student change.Cost of re-creating systems draws away from effective education.Administrative benefits of scaleCost savings for data systemsEffective transitions among faculty when they shift from one school to another.Effective innovationData systems promote innovation.Focus on research-based practices
51Savings in Administrative time What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle SchoolSavings in Administrative timeODR = 15 minSuspension = 45 min13,875 minutes231 hours29, 8-hour daysSavings in Student Instructional timeODR = 45 minSuspension = 216 min43,650 minutes728 hours121 6-hour school days
52Summary Invest in prevention Build a social culture of competence Focus on different systems for different challengesBuild local capacity through team processes, and adaptation of the practices to fit the local contextUse data for decision-makingBegin with active administrative leadershipExamples