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GLOBAL POSITION OF THE STRATEGIES OF TEACHING BASIC SCIENCE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS: THE CASE OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "GLOBAL POSITION OF THE STRATEGIES OF TEACHING BASIC SCIENCE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS: THE CASE OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 GLOBAL POSITION OF THE STRATEGIES OF TEACHING BASIC SCIENCE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS: THE CASE OF STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

2 Sariat Adelakun University of Birmingham (United Kingdom)

3 Introduction  Nigeria operates educational system.  The first Six years are spent in Primary school, followed by 3years in Junior secondary school, then 3years in senior secondary school and the last 4years in University  Basic Science is one of the core subjects for Junior secondary schools students in Nigeria irrespective of their disability (NPE,2004)  Visually impaired students are however faced with challenges in mainstream classrooms because of the visual demands of the science subjects

4 Aims  The aim of this research is to explore the level of inclusion enjoyed by students with visual impairment (those who learn with other sense organs except vision) with reference to the teaching of Basic science  It also investigates the strategies of teaching Basic Science in selected junior secondary schools in South-Western Nigeria

5 THE UN STANDARD RULES  Rule 6 of the UN standard rules on the equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities affirms the equal right of children... with disabilities to education. This is adopted by the Nigerian Government to be provided in an integrated settings. (NPE, 2004)

6 Science for all, equalising educational opportunity  There are a lot of challenges facing the idea of including students with visual impairment in science globally.  This is because science is dominated with visual activities.  Many people consider doing science impossible for students with impaired vision.  Norman, Caseau and Stefanish (1998) states that people hold stereotyped views of what students with disabilities can and cannot do especially students with visual impairment.  However, Science is for all students, disabilities must not be an obstacle to acquisition of scientific knowledge.  Students will use the knowledge of science throughout their lives to make good choices, solve problems and participate in public discussion about issues relating to science. (Lovitt and Horton, 1994; Do-IT, 2002)

7 Definition of Visual Impairment  visual impairment is a term that describes a wide continuum of loss in visual function such as: visual acuity (ability to resolve detail), accommodation (ability to focus), field of vision (area which can be seen), colour vision and adaptability of light. (Douglas and McLinden (2005 p. 26).

8 The World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of visual impairment Visual acuityWHO classification 6/6 to 6/18Normal vision < 6/18 to ≥ 3/60 (Less than 6/18 but better than or equal to 3/60) Low vision < 3/60Blind

9 Strategies for Teaching Science  The specific needs of the students with visual impairment demands for novel teaching techniques that will focus on the functional senses of the SVI.  This can be done by using multisensory approach for teaching Basic Science. i.e presenting teaching resources in accessible format by making the learning resources available through the other sense organs.

10 Strategies Used for Teaching Basic Science  Globally, the list of methods of teaching science is inexhaustible due to the fact that knowledge is dynamic, some teaching strategies are general to all subjects and some are specific to some disciplines.  Recent work on strategies however pointed out that strategies used for impacting knowledge depends much on teacher’s affective domain Norman and Caseau. (1994)These refer to teacher’s emotions, values, motivations and attitudes.  This domain can enhance or dampen student’s interest in a subject. For instance, teachers whose attitude is negative to a subject cannot encourage students to learn it.  Caring, understanding, helpful, patient, fair discipline, unbiased teacher with effective classroom management will apply relevant strategies to successfully teach science. (Atwood, 1985)

11 The following strategies are identified for teaching science by researchers:  Inquiry based learning (hands-on-science), Problem based learning, Project based learning, Concept mapping, Excursion, cooperative learning. (Gardener, 2002)  Other strategies includes: virtual field trips, role play, case studies, Mysteries, posters, web quests, cyber guides, mini conferences, plays, predict observe explain (POE), Five Es- engage explore explain elaborate evaluate, Vee diagram, portfolios, oral presentations, collaborative work, creating board games, concept mapping and future wheels. Other methods incudes: inquiry activities, verification activities, Models, crafts, Games, Current events, Role playing, Debates, cooperative learning groups, Computers, Audio-visual techniques (Lazer disc, films, slides, Tapes); Research and integration with all subjects. (Adediran and Oluokun, 2007; Gardener, 1998)

12 Methodology  A case study research design was used to find out the teaching strategies used by the Basic Science teachers in three purposively selected junior secondary schools in Nigeria.  Five Basic Science lessons were observed in classes where SVI are taught alongside the sighted students.  This was followed up with semi-structured interview with the Basic Science teachers.

13 Methods  Classroom observations of Basic Science lessons  Semi-structured interviews with the Basic Science teachers

14 Level of Inclusion practiced in the case schools  Globally Nigeria has a long way to go in implementing inclusion of Students with visual impairment as recommended in the National policy on Education and rule 6 of the UN standard rules on equalising educational opportunity for all irrespective of their disabilities

15 Discussions  The result indicated that the students with visual impairment (SVI) are taught like the sighted  They are often been ignored in the class except in one school where concrete object was provided by the teacher for the SVI to explore during a lesson out of the five lessons observed.  The strategies in use are not activity based, that can challenge and develop inquiry skills which should nurture development of scientific attitudes.  They are teacher centred, mostly delivered like lectures.  No consideration for opportunity for SVI to access graphics and other visual materials that dominates Basic Science curriculum

16 Continuation of discussions  Out of the thirty strategies identified 85% are unknown by the Basic Science teachers interviewed in the three schools.  The three teachers interviewed are only aware of problem based learning, project based learning, Excursion, cooperative learning, verification activities and Models.  Only case school 3 teacher is aware of how computers can be used to teach Basic Science despite the fact that the government provided computers for each school.

17 SVI Participation in Basic Science lessons

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20 CONCLUSIONS From the findings obtained from the interviews and the classroom observations, I could infer that:  The students with visual impairment are taught like the sighted students.  The teaching strategies of the teacher do not emphasise the functioning sense organs of the SVI (i.e. tactile and sound)  I could also infer that the students with visual impairment are not enjoying the lessons; this is shown in their movement out of the classroom during the lessons observed.  The teachers do not make effort to adapt the apparatus or equipment to enable the students with visual impairment follow the lessons  From the responses of the teachers they have wrong understanding of what the students with visual impairment can and cannot do.  Globally, Nigeria still has a long way to go, the methods in use are not challenging enough for the students.

21 RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations were made to Nigerian Government (Federal Ministry of Education), Universal Basic Education Commission (UBE) and proprietors of private schools, to  Organise in-service training for the basic science teachers on new strategies of teaching Basic Science especially to the SVI.  Suggestions were also proffered to the teacher training institutions to incorporate new strategies of teaching Basic Science to SVI in the general education curriculum to make their graduands relevant after graduation.  Schools should organise training for their teachers on specific duties expected from them when employed to enable full inclusion of the SVI in Basic Science as enshrined in the Nigeria National Policy on Education

22 References [1]Douglas, G and McLinden, M (2005) Visual impairment in special teaching for special children: pedagogies for inclusion Lewis and Norwich (Eds.) Maidenhead: Open University Press [2]World Health Organization (1980) International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health. Geneva: WHO [3]Norman, K., Caseau, D. and Stefanich, G. P. (1998) ‘Teaching students with disabilities in inclusive science classrooms: Survey results’, Science Education 82 (2), pp [4]Vermeij, G Science, blindness, and evolution: The common theme is opportunity. The Braille Monitor 47 (3).Available at [5]Lovitt, T., & Horton, S. (1994). Strategies for adapting science textbooks for youth with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 15, [6]Norman, K. and Caseau, N. (1994) ‘Integrating students with learning disabilities into regular science education classrooms: Recommended instructional models and adaptations’, in Stefanich, G. P. and Egelston- Dodd, J. E. (eds), Improving Science Instruction for Students with Disabilities, Proceedings for the Working Conference on Science with Persons with Disabilities, March 24-28, Washington, D.C: The National Science Foundation. [7]Gardner, J. A. (2002) ‘Science Educational Information and Students with Print Disabilities’, [8]Atwood, R.K. and Oldham, B.R. (1985) ‘Teachers’ perceptions of mainstreaming in an inquiry oriented elementary science program’, Science Education 69, pp [9]Adediran, O. A. and Oluokun, A. A. (2007) The need for visually impaired student’s participation in science education: Its implication for counselling. International Journal of Emotional Psychology and sport ethics (IJEPSE) 9 (June) p [10]Gardner, J. A. (1998) ‘The Quest for Access to Science by People with Print Impairments’, CMC Magazine, February 1998, [11]Garuba, A. (2003) Inclusive Education in the 21st century: Challenges and Opportunities for Nigeria Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal 14 (2) [12]DO-IT (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology) (2002) A Reading List (in the area of mathematics and science for students with disabilities), [13]Adetoro, N. (2011) Alternative Formats Availability and its Utilisation by Visually Impaired Students in Nigerian Secondary Schools Asian Journal of Information Science and Technology Volume 1, 1 pp [14]Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education Lagos: Federal Government Press


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