POTUS Party? Do you know the political affiliations of the modern presidents?
What is the purpose of political parties? How do you know which political party to join? Beliefs/Issues?
The ignorance of one voter in a democracy impairs the security of all. -- John F. Kennedy (1917-1963) Social Issues: Abortion Legalization of drugs Death Penalty Gun Rights Same-Sex Marriage Video Game Violence Economic Issues: Health Care Taxes Social Security National Debt Bailouts Environmental Protection
Political Ideology LEFT Center RIGHT Liberty (freedom) versus Security (control) (Theme in Politics/Government)
Ideologies Liberalism: A set of beliefs that positive government action can improve the welfare of individuals. Tolerance for diversity and social change. Freedom (left) Social Issues – Control (right) in Economy AKA = Liberals, Democrats Conservatism: A set of beliefs that include a limited role of national government in solving problems. Support traditional values and lifestyles, cautious about change. Control (right) Social Issues – Freedom (left) in Economy AKA = Conservatives, Republicans, GOP Moderate: prefer a "middle ground" regarding government control of the economy and personal behavior. Both Republicans and Democrats can by Moderates.
Political Ideology Conservative Definition: Statist Definition: Libertarian Definition: Liberal Definition: Govt. Control (Zero Freedom) Economic Issues Social I ssuesSocial I ssues Freedom Moderate (Centrist) Freedom
Take the World’s Smallest Political Quiz! hongovmaris.wikispaces.com Where do you fall on the political map? Plot yourself on your graph!
What are Political Parties? A political party is an organization of citizens who wish to influence and control government by getting their members (who believe the way they do) elected to office. Political parties: express the voice of citizens inform citizens; make it easier to vote involve citizens in the democratic political process. recruit and nominate candidates raise $ support campaigns provide organization in government political parties set goals for the government advocate issues write party platform and position statements (planks). are “watchdogs” (keep other parties accountable)
Political Parties “If I could not go to heaven but with a party [political], I would not go there at all” --T. Jefferson
Brief Party History Federalist party – Washington, Adams, Hamilton (1789-1800), supported strong central gov.; opposed by Anti-Federalists. Democratic-Republican party, Thomas Jefferson (1800s-1834), opposed strong national gov. and supported states’ rights. Became Democratic party 1828 (Jackson). Whig party (1834) opposed democrats and specifically “king Andrew” (royal tyranny). Harrison and Taylor. Republican party born in 1854 by members opposed to slavery. Lincoln first Republican President in 1860. Republican party dominated until 1930s, FDR, Democrat. Republican and Democratic parties prevail since 1854.
Harper's Weekly in 1874 "The Third-Term Panic."
Third Parties Third Parties also form to support a cause or candidate Influence elections by winning votes, press issues, often don’t receive as much financial support. Few third-party candidates get elected to office Examples: Tea Party Green Party Green Party (Ralph Nader) Reform Party (Ross Perot received 19% of pres. Vote in 92) Libertarian Constitution Party “Bull Moose” (Theodore Roosevelt, 1912) Progressive Socialist (Eugene Debs) Free Soil
Party Organization Both parties have local, state, and national organizations. http://www.gop.com/ http://www.gop.com/ RNC http://www.democrats.org/http://www.democrats.org/ DNC http://www.pagop.org/http://www.pagop.org/ State http://www.padems.com/homehttp://www.padems.com/home State http://yorkgop.com/http://yorkgop.com/ Local http://www.yorkdems.org/http://www.yorkdems.org/ Local Free Membership (register to vote)
Party Platforms http://2012election.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=004483 2012 Democratic National Party Platform A party platform refers to a political party's formal statement of its basic principles, objectives, and positions on major issues. Which parties have the most members???
Two-Party System U.S. Politics Red or Blue - Why ? A Republican or Democrat has won the Presidency since 1860. There are 2 independents out of 535 in the 113th Congress.2 independents There is only 1 Independent Governor (30 R – 20 D). PA GovernmentPA Government, Third Parties? Compare the # of political parties in the U.S. with other Countries: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/fields/2101.html#sw
Voting Systems Plurality/Majority Systems: U.S., UK, Canada, Australia, India. In the UK, they call it the “First Past the Post” system. The winner (even if only be 1 vote, wins the district or all electors/delegates.) Proportional Representation Systems: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Parties compete and get percentage of seats based on votes (if 100 seats; 20% get 20 seats, etc.). Other Mixed Systems
Why a Two-Party System? 1. Winner Take All Politics Voting system that rewards candidates with a majority or plurality (more than anyone else) of votes. discourages “spoiler” vote on other candidates not likely to win Alternative is “proportional representation” (5% of votes = 5% of seats in legislative body) 2. Duality of political issues Two sides to major conflicts (Fed/Anti-Fed, life/choice) two-sided debates = no room for third [party] point of view 3. Tradition Republicans (GOP) and Democrats already make up majority of government members and leadership. States control rules for elections. Winner-Take-All politics perpetuates the Two-Party System
Two-Party System Advantages/Disadvantages There are a few advantages of the American two-party system : Stability: Two-party systems are more stable than multiparty systems Moderation: The two parties must appeal to the middle to win elections, so the parties tend to be moderate. Ease: Voters have only to decide between two parties. Direct Relationship with Representatives But there are also a few disadvantages to our system, including the following: Lack of choice: Both parties tend to be very similar, limiting voters’ options. Less democratic: A percentage of people will always feel marginalized by the system (Spoiler Vote).
Resources Video: Brief History of Political Parties http://www.boston.com/ae/celebrity/gallery/partyaffiliation2008/ http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/political-parties http://www.theadvocates.org/