2Does our constitution mention political parties? A group of people organized to influence government through winning elections and setting public policyDoes our constitution mention political parties?
3What type of party system does the United States have? Party SystemsOne-Party SystemA political system in which only one party exists or routinely controls the governmentTwo-Party SystemA political system in which only two major parties compete for control of the governmentMultiparty SystemA political system in which may parties exist and compete for control of the governmentWhat type of party system does the United States have?
4Roles of Political Parties Getting Out InformationPublicize points of viewCampaign for candidateCriticize opponentPublic develops opinions about society’s problemsRunning the GovernmentLegislatures= organized by party affiliationsThink of party’s position when votingRecruiting & LabelingSelecting candidatesHelp voters identify a candidate’s political viewsActing as WatchdogsMinority = criticsMajority = Monitor party in power
5Influence of Parties in the U.S. The Parties & VotersHow do you join a political party?Independent: a voter who does not belong to or consistently support one of the main political partiesParty OrganizationTop-down decision-making vs. bottom up decision-makingGrassroots: people at the local level; average voters, not professional politiciansThe Party & GovernmentSenate & House of Rep. – majority party leads legislative process vs. minority party (must pay attention to party politics if they want success)
8America’s Two-Party System Why does the U.S. only have two parties?
9America’s Two-Party System Historical InfluenceTraditionFederalist vs. Anti-FederalistsAmerican Political Beliefs and ValuesConsensus – collective opinion, general agreementWinner-Take-All SystemAn electoral system in which the person with the most voteswins; no majority is neededWinner only needs one more vote than opponentSingle-member district: an electoral district in which only the one candidate with the most votes is elected to office
11The History of Political Parties in American History
12The First Party System 1796-1828 Alexander Hamilton, co-founder of the FederalistEconomic stability = national bankStrong central governmentThomas Jefferson, James Madison & James MonroeAnti-federalistsDemocratic-republicans (later)States’ rights & state banks
13The First Democratic Era Election of 1828 – Thomas JeffersonDemocratic party formedElevate opportunities for “ordinary citizens”Eliminate privileges for the eliteWho nominates president?Opposition Party: the WhigsHenry Clay & Daniel WebsterNorth vs. South
14The Republican Era 1860-1932 Republicans – 1850s anti-slavery party Candidate: Abraham Lincoln, election of 1860Civil WarSouth = democraticNorth = republicanHistory of Republican Party:Sarah Palin Meets Abraham Lincoln:
15The Second Democratic Era Great depressionRepublican party down, Democratic party upPresident Franklin Roosevelt (D) – 1932New Deal Coalition – help country recoverHelp labor, the working classes & minoritiesPresident Lyndon Johnson (D)President Dwight Eisenhower (R)Democrats control Congress and dominate state & local elections
16The Era of Divided Government 1968-PresentCivil RightsDemocratic party = pro-civil rightsLose southerners to Republican partyThe Vietnam WarDivided governmentPresident Jimmy Carter (D)President Bill Clinton (D)Split ticket: a vote for candidates of more than one party in the same electionDifference between Republicans and Democrats:Daily Show’s Take on Republicans:Daily Show’s Take on Democrats:
20Results of the United States House of Representatives elections Results of the United States House of Representatives elections. November 6, Democratic hold, Democratic pickup, Republican pickup, Republican hold
21United States House of Representatives (November 6, 2012)
23Libertarians What is a Libertarian? Individual liberty: especially of thought and action.Personal ResponsibilityStrongly oppose any government interfering in their personal, family and business decisionsAmericans should be free to live their lives and pursue their interests as they see fit as long as they do no harm to another.In a nutshell: smaller government, lower taxes and more freedom.Are Libertarians liberal or conservative?NeitherAdvocate freedom in economic mattersSocially tolerant
24What does the term “Tea Party” mean? The Tea Party movement is:American political movement that advocates strict adherence to the United States ConstitutionReducing U.S. government spending and taxesReduction of the U.S. national debt and federal budget deficit
25Liberals v. Conservatives cont’d PhilosophyLiberalConservativeTraditionally strong in states:California, MassachusettsOklahoma, Kansas, TexasSymbol:DonkeyElephantColor:BlueRedFounded in:18241854Website:Senate Leader:Harry ReidMitch McConnellChairperson:Debbie Wasserman SchultzReince PriebusFamous Presidents:Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton, Woodrow Wilson, Jimmy CarterTeddy Roosevelt, Ronald Reagan, George Bush, Abraham Lincoln, Richard Nixon
26Liberals v. Conservatives Philosophy:LiberalConservativeEconomic Ideas:Favor minimum wages and progressive taxation i.e. higher tax rates for higher income brackets.Believe taxes shouldn't be increased for anyone (including the wealthy) and that wages should be set by the free market.Stand on Military issues:Decreased spendingIncreased spendingStand on gay marriage:Support (some Democrats disagree)Oppose (some Republicans disagree)Stand on abortion:Should not be made illegal; support Roe v. Wade (some Democrats disagree)Should not be legal; oppose Roe v. Wade (some Republicans disagree)Stand on Death penalty:While support for the death penalty is strong among Democrats, opponents of the death penalty are a substantial fraction of the Democratic base.A large majority of Republicans support the death penalty.Social and human ideas:Based on community and social responsibilityBased on individual rights and justice