Presentation on theme: "Problems, Policy and Political Streams"— Presentation transcript:
1 Problems, Policy and Political Streams PA 5012Anders VictorWilly Boulay
2 Agenda Garbage Can Model Stream Discussion Problems, policies and politicsSupplement: 'Recycling the Garbage Can'Example: Drone PolicyOverviewThree streams
3 Background Policy formation questions How is the agenda set?How are alternatives specified?Why do these processes work like they do?Cohen, March & Olsen: Garbage CanKingdon: Stream Model
4 The Garbage Can Model Organized Anarchies Cohen, March & Olsen: Federal governmentOutcomes: function of mix of garbage in the can and how it is processedHeavily dependent on coupling of streamsSource:
5 Kingdon: Three Streams Recognize problemsHow and why do certain problems capture the attention of the government?Generate proposals for policy changeSimilar to solutions stream of Garbage Can modelEngage in political activitiesNational mood, elections, shifts of Congress, interest group campaigns
6 Problem Stream Indicators Focusing events Feedback Powerful=measurable "Conditions become defined as problems when we come to believe that we should do something about them"IndicatorsPowerful=measurableInterpretationFocusing eventsCrisis & accompanimentEx: I-35W bridge collapseFeedback
7 "There is no new thing under the sun" Policy StreamThe Policy Primeval SoupPolicy communitiesFragmentationIncentivesPolicy entrepreneursIncentives: personal interests, ideology, 'policy groupies'Softening upSurvival"There is no new thing under the sun"
8 "Important promoter or inhibitor of high agenda status" Political StreamNational moodOrganized political forcesGovernmentTurnover, jurisdictionConsensus building"Important promoter or inhibitor of high agenda status"
9 'Recycling the Garbage Can' "Formalization often helps science progress, but it is not a panacea. In this case a heavy price was paid, for the verbal theory and the computer model do not represent the same phenomena at all. Decision makers in the verbal theory confront a chaotic world in which they, solutions, and problems dance around one another, meeting by chance in choice arenas.But in the simulation, packs of decision makers-and often problems as well-march in lockstep from arena to arena. And solutions never move at all. This is ironic. The informal theory of the garbage can is famous for depicting a world that is much more complex than that described by classical theories of organizational choice. The latter's tidy image of goal specification, alternative generation, evaluation, and choice is replaced by a complex swirl of problems looking for solutions, solutions looking for problems, participants wandering around looking for work, and all three searching for choice opportunities. Yet, the simulation depicts almost none of this and in fact creates a world of remarkable order."Recycling the Garbage Can: An Assessment of the Research Program. Jonathan Bendor; Terry M. Moe; Kenneth W. Shotts. The American Political Science Review, Vol. 95, No. 1. (Mar., 2001), pp
11 Current State of Drone Policy in U.S. No publically released current drone use policy by the federal governmentConfirmed use of drone technology by United States Air Force and Central Intelligence Agency in multiple conflict areasUnconfirmed usage by domestic law enforcement agencies for surveillance of citizenry
12 Drone Policy Issues Oversight gaps Transparency Ethical, legal, and societal implications of useAdvanced development and expanded useSimply put: there is no concrete policySource:
13 Capturing Attention and the Problem Stream "Fairly often, problems come to the attention of governmental decision makers...because some more or less systematic indicator simply shows that there is a problem out there." Kingdon, p. 90Indicators (must be pervasive, necessary, and powerful)Focusing eventsDefining the drone problem
14 The Drone Policy Stream Fragmented Congressional community continually shifts the agendaRand Paul's 13 hour filibusterThe role of values and technical feasibilityThe short list of alternativesSource:
15 Powers that be: The Political Stream "Flowing along independently of the problems and policy streams is the political stream, composed of such things as public mood, pressure group campaigns, election results, partisan or ideological distributions in Congress, and changes of administration." Kingdon, p. 145National mood: Washington Post poll shows 79% approval for Rand Paul's stance on limiting domestic use of dronesTurnover of CongressJurisdiction: The struggle for controlTipping point
16 QuestionsConsidering what we've learned about the three political streams, what is the outlook for the development of a concrete drone policy?Relating the Garbage Can model to drone policy, what streams are most likely to form couplings? Will these initial couplings serve to inhibit progress on the issue or encourage it?