Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

NUTRITION-V Dr M.Rashid Anjum Community Medicine Department Army Medical College.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "NUTRITION-V Dr M.Rashid Anjum Community Medicine Department Army Medical College."— Presentation transcript:

1 NUTRITION-V Dr M.Rashid Anjum Community Medicine Department Army Medical College

2 VITAMINS (Micronutrients) QUESTIONS? 1.What are vitamins? 2.Why these are essential for body? 3.What happens if there is deficiency of vitamins? of vitamins?

3 VITAMINS Organic Compounds (C-containing) Organic Compounds (C-containing) Essential for Essential for Growth Growth Body functions Body functions Maintenance Maintenance

4 VITAMINS:TWO-GROUPS FAT SOLUBLE WATER SOLUBLE FAT SOLUBLE WATER SOLUBLE Vit-A 8 B-VITAMINS & VIT-C Vit-A 8 B-VITAMINS & VIT-C Vit-D B-1 Thiamin Vit-D B-1 Thiamin Vit-K B-2 Riboflavin Vit-K B-2 Riboflavin Vit-E B-3 Niacin Vit-E B-3 Niacin B-6 Pyridoxine B-6 Pyridoxine B-12 Cyanocobalamin B-12 Cyanocobalamin Pantothenic acid Pantothenic acid Biotin Biotin Folate Folate

5 PROVITAMINS An inactive form of a vitamin that the body can convert into an active use-able form. An inactive form of a vitamin that the body can convert into an active use-able form. Example: Carotenoid Precursor of Vit A in foods of plant origin. Present in many fruits and vegetables. Precursor of Vit A in foods of plant origin. Present in many fruits and vegetables.

6 Major Role of Vitamins: Antioxidants Coenzymes Antioxidants Coenzymes Vit E 8 B-Vitamins Vit E 8 B-Vitamins Vit C Vision Vit C Vision Carotenoids Vit A Carotenoids Vit A Bone Health Blood Clotting Bone Health Blood Clotting Vit D Vit K Vit D Vit K Vit K Vit K

7 VITAMIN-A (The Retinoids) Three active (03) Forms: Three active (03) Forms: Retinol The alcohol form (KEY PLAYER) Retinol The alcohol form (KEY PLAYER) (reproduction& bone health) (reproduction& bone health) Retinal The aldehyde form Retinal The aldehyde form (night & color vision) (night & color vision) Retinoic acid The acid form Retinoic acid The acid form (cell growth & differentiation) (cell growth & differentiation)

8 Vitamin A interconversions Retinol RetinalRetinoic acid

9 STORAGE &TRANSPORT Liver 90 % Adipose tissues Lungs & kidneys 10% (stored as retinyl esters) (stored as retinyl esters) Transported by retinol binding protein (RBP) Serum range of RBP = 40-50 mcg/dL.

10 SOURCES OF VITAMIN-A Animal food 50% Animal food 50% (as preformed Vit-A) (as preformed Vit-A) Cod liver oil, Milk fat, Meat, Eggs,Fortified foods like Margarine. Fruits and Vegetables 50% Fruits and Vegetables 50% (as provitamin-A, carotenoids) (as provitamin-A, carotenoids) Carrots,Spinach,Broccoli,Potatoes, Carrots,Spinach,Broccoli,Potatoes, Apricot,Mangoo.Papaya,Pumpkin Apricot,Mangoo.Papaya,Pumpkin

11 MEASURING UNIT RAE (Retinol Activity Equivalent) RAE (Retinol Activity Equivalent) 1 RAE = 1 microgram Retinol 1 RAE = 1 microgram Retinol = 12 microgram beta carotene = 12 microgram beta carotene = 24 microgram carotenoids = 24 microgram carotenoids

12 RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE MALE 900 microgram RAE MALE 900 microgram RAE FEMALE 700 microgram RAE FEMALE 700 microgram RAE PREGNANT WOMEN 770 microgram RAE PREGNANT WOMEN 770 microgram RAE LACTATING WOMEN 1300 microgram RAE LACTATING WOMEN 1300 microgram RAE INFANTS 400 microgram RAE INFANTS 400 microgram RAE

13 FUNCTIONS OF VIT-A Vit-A and Vision ( Retinal) Vit-A and Vision ( Retinal) Vit-A and cell differentiation (Retinoic acid) Vit-A and cell differentiation (Retinoic acid) Vit-A and immune functions (Retinoic acid) Vit-A and immune functions (Retinoic acid) Vit-A and reproduction (Retinol+Retinal) Vit-A and reproduction (Retinol+Retinal) Vit-A and bone health (Retinol+Retinal+Retinoic) Vit-A and bone health (Retinol+Retinal+Retinoic)

14 BABY TELLING SOMETHING ?

15 VITMIN-A DEFICIENCY EYE: The signs of vitamin A deficiency are predominantly ocular NightblindnessNightblindness Conjunctival xerosisConjunctival xerosis Bitots spotsBitots spots Corneal xerosisCorneal xerosis KeratomalaciaKeratomalacia XEROPHTHALMIA: (dry eyes) includes all ocular manifestations ranging from night blindness to keratomalacia.

16 NIGHTBLINDNESS NIGHTBLINDNESS Lack of vitamin A first causes night blindness or inability to see in dim light. Lack of vitamin A first causes night blindness or inability to see in dim light. CONJUNCTIVAL XEROSIS CONJUNCTIVAL XEROSIS This is the first clinical sign of vitamin A deficiency. The conjunctiva becomes dry and non-wettable. This is the first clinical sign of vitamin A deficiency. The conjunctiva becomes dry and non-wettable. VITMIN-A DEFICIENCY

17 CONJUNCTIVAL XEROSIS

18 VITAMIN- A DEFICIENCY BITOTS SPOTS BITOTS SPOTS Bitots spots are triangular, pearly-white or yellowish, foamy spots on the bulbar conjunctiva on either side of the cornea. They are frequently bilateral. Bitots spots in young children usually indicate vitamin A deficiency. In older individuals, these spots are often inactive sequelae of earlier disease.Bitots spots are triangular, pearly-white or yellowish, foamy spots on the bulbar conjunctiva on either side of the cornea. They are frequently bilateral. Bitots spots in young children usually indicate vitamin A deficiency. In older individuals, these spots are often inactive sequelae of earlier disease.

19 BITOTS SPOTS

20 VITAMIN-A DEFICIENCY CORNEAL XEROSIS CORNEAL XEROSIS The cornea appears dull, dry and non-wettable and eventually opaque. It does not have a moist appearance. In more severe deficiency there may be corneal ulceration. The ulcer may heal leaving a corneal scar which can affect vision.The cornea appears dull, dry and non-wettable and eventually opaque. It does not have a moist appearance. In more severe deficiency there may be corneal ulceration. The ulcer may heal leaving a corneal scar which can affect vision.

21 CORNEAL XEROSIS

22 VITAMIN-A DEFICIENCY KERATOMALACIA KERATOMALACIA Keratomalacia or liquefaction of the cornea is a grave medical emergency. The cornea (a part or whole) may become soft and may burst open. The process is a rapid one. If the eye collapses, vision is lost.Keratomalacia or liquefaction of the cornea is a grave medical emergency. The cornea (a part or whole) may become soft and may burst open. The process is a rapid one. If the eye collapses, vision is lost.

23 KERATOMALACIA

24 EXTRA-OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS SKIN: Follicular Hyperkeratosis.( goose flesh)SKIN: Follicular Hyperkeratosis.( goose flesh) GROWTH :retardation, bone deformities.GROWTH :retardation, bone deformities. IMMUNE FUNCTION:IMMUNE FUNCTION: Increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and intestinal infection. Increased morbidity and mortality due to respiratory and intestinal infection. decreased sperm production,female infertility. decreased sperm production,female infertility.

25 TREATMENT All the early stages of xero-ophthalmia can be reversed by administration of a massive oral dose (200,000 IU or 110 mg) of Retinyl Palmitate on two successive days. All the early stages of xero-ophthalmia can be reversed by administration of a massive oral dose (200,000 IU or 110 mg) of Retinyl Palmitate on two successive days. Children with corneal ulcers should receive vitamin A whether or not a deficiency is suspected. Children with corneal ulcers should receive vitamin A whether or not a deficiency is suspected.

26 EPIDEMIOLOGY An estimated 250 million preschool children and 19 million pregnant women are vitamin A deficient globally. An estimated 250 million preschool children and 19 million pregnant women are vitamin A deficient globally. An estimated 250 000 to 500 000 vitamin A deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. An estimated 250 000 to 500 000 vitamin A deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight.

27 PREVENTION Improvement of diet so as to ensure a regular and adequate intake of food rich in vitamin A Improvement of diet so as to ensure a regular and adequate intake of food rich in vitamin A Reducing respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea and measles. Reducing respiratory tract infections, diarrhoea and measles. Both are long term measures involving intensive nutrition education of the public and community participation. Both are long term measures involving intensive nutrition education of the public and community participation. Supply of fortified foods. Supply of fortified foods. Vitamin-A capsule 200000 iu 4-----6 months Vitamin-A capsule 200000 iu 4-----6 months ( children 6months-------6 years) ( children 6months-------6 years)

28 THANKYOU THANKYOU


Download ppt "NUTRITION-V Dr M.Rashid Anjum Community Medicine Department Army Medical College."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google