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© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:1 Physical Security
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:2 Three Security Disciplines Physical –Most common security discipline –Protect facilities and contents Plants, labs, stores, parking areas, loading areas, warehouses, offices, equipment, machines, tools, vehicles, products, materials Personnel –Protect employees, customers, guests Information –The rest of this course
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:3 Information Revolution Information Revolution as pervasive at the Industrial Revolution Impact is Political, Economic, and Social as well as Technical Information has an increasing intrinsic value Protection of critical information now a critical concern in Government, Business, Academia
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:4 Politics and Technology The end of the Cold War resulted in a greater political complexity Information critical to all aspects of government Military Commerce Politics –Information is Power –Protection of information more important than ever
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:5 Business and Technology Information has become a product on its own Information technologies critical Protection of information essential Business now dependent on the Net Who controls the ON/OFF Switch?
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:6 The New World The Internet allows global connectivity Cyber-space has no borders Anonymity easy to accomplish New breed of threat Technically smart Determined, knowledgeable Physical Security often overlooked in the new threat environment
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:7 Nature of the Threat Threat environment changes Nation-state threat – Countries see computers as equalizers – New balance of power through information control Non-state actors – New levels of potential threat –“Strategic Guns for Hire” –Terrorism remains physical act Physical attacks against information sources requires minimal effort for maximum effect - Gums up the Gears!!!!
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:8 How Has It Changed? Physical Events Have Cyber Consequences Cyber Events Have Physical Consequences
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:9 Physical Attacks require little resources Insider threat very real Disgruntled employee Agent for hire Tactics well known and hard to stop World Trade Center Aldrich Aimes Financial network facilities viable target Target information readily available Threat and Physical Security
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:10 Why Physical Security? Not all threats are “cyber threats” Information one commodity that can be stolen without being “taken” Physically barring access is first line of defense Forces those concerned to prioritize! Physical Security can be a deterrent Security reviews force insights into value of what is being protected
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:11 Layered Security Physical Barriers Fences Alarms Restricted Access Technology Physical Restrictions Air Gapping Removable Media Remote Storage Personnel Security Practices Limited Access Training Consequences/Deterrence
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:12 Physical Barriers Hardened Facilities Fences Guards Alarms Locks Restricted Access Technologies –Biometrics –Coded Entry –Badging Signal Blocking (Faraday Cages)
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:13 Outer Protective Layers Structure –Fencing, gates, other barriers Environment –Lighting, signs, alarms Purpose –Define property line and discourage trespassing –Provide distance from threats
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:14 Middle Protective Layers Structure –Door controls, window controls –Ceiling penetration –Ventilation ducts –Elevator Penthouses Environment –Within defined perimeter, positive controls Purpose –Alert threat, segment protection zones
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:15 Inner Protective Layers Several layers Structure –Door controls, biometrics –Signs, alarms, cctv –Safes, vaults Environment –Authorized personnel only Purpose –Establish controlled areas and rooms
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:16 Example System: SEI Building Structure: –6 exterior doors –Windows secured –Exterior Lit Middle Layers: –Guard desk –Proximity card system –CCTV Inner Layers: Intellectual Property Protection
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:17 Other Barrier Issues Handling of trash or scrap Fire: –Temperature –Smoke Pollution: –CO –Radon Flood Earthquake
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:18 Physical Restrictions Air Gapping Data Limits access to various security levels Requires conscious effort to violate Protects against inadvertent transmission Removable Media Removable Hard Drives Floppy Disks/CDs/ZIP Disks Remote Storage of Data Physically separate storage facility Use of Storage Media or Stand Alone computers Updating of Stored Data and regular inventory
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:19 Personnel Security Practices Insider Threat the most serious Disgruntled employee Former employee Agent for hire Personnel Training Critical Element Most often overlooked Background checks Critical when access to information required Must be updated CIA/FBI embarrassed
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:20 People Disgruntled employee / former employee Moonlighter Marketing, sales representatives, etc. Purchasing agents, buyers, subcontract administrators Consultants Vendor/Subcontractor Clerical Applicants, Visitors, Customers
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:21 Activities or Events Publications, public releases, etc. Seminars, conventions or trade shows Survey or questionnaire Plant tours, “open house”, family visits Governmental actions: certification, investigation Construction and Repair
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:22 Technical Security Alarms Loud and Noisy Silent Integrated into barrier methods Video/Audio Deterrent factor Difficult to archive Bio-Metrics Identification Reliability questions
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:23 NISPOM National Industrial Security Operating Manual Prescribes requirements, restrictions and other safeguards that are necessary to prevent unauthorized disclosure of information Protections for special classes of information: Restricted Information, Special Access Program Information, Sensitive Compartmented Information National Security Council provides overall policy direction Governs oversight and compliance for 20 government agencies
© 2006 Carnegie Mellon University95752-2:24 The Place of Physical Security Physical Security is part of integrated security plan Often overlooked when considering Information Security No information security plan is complete without it!
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