Presentation on theme: "All Our Students Thinking by Nel Noddings Jigsaw Discussion Summary Lynn Burke, Justin Pfaffinger, Lisa McKercher, Heather Tracy, and Christine Bye."— Presentation transcript:
1All Our Students Thinking by Nel Noddings Jigsaw Discussion Summary Lynn Burke, Justin Pfaffinger, Lisa McKercher, Heather Tracy, and Christine Bye
2All Our Students Thinking The article highlights three general themes related to promoting critical thinking in our schools today.Critical Thinking vs. Memorization - Many schools are still prioritizing memorization and teaching to standards rather than promoting true critical thinking.Preparing Students for the Future - Our schools promote the importance of “intellectual” subjects over equally important (but less intellectual) subjects that may actually prepare students for real-life.Teacher Training and Curriculum Flexibility - Teachers may lack the training or the flexibility to promote critical thinking in their classrooms.
3Critical Thinking vs. Memorization This article encourages critical thinking in place of rote memorization and drilling of mathematical formulas. Critical thinking is reading, writing, questioning, arguing, and considering implications of how what you are learning affects your life. For example: Margie, a U.S. History student, memorized a list of 40 facts for a test but was never asked why certain events occurred or how well-known historical figures were worthy of their places in our history books. Margie aced the history test by memorizing the facts and dates, but soon lost the information because the thinking was not critical.Why don’t we ask open ended questions more often?In Margie’s study of U.S. History, the teacher could have asked questions like, “Who were the Tories?” or “What happened to them after the war?”These questions engage the students much more in their learning than “What year was the Constitution ratified?” or "What is the capital of Nevada?".
4Critical Thinking vs. Memorization Bloom’s Taxonomy A Tool for Promoting Critical Thinking in the ClassroomIn 1956, Benjamin Bloom created a taxonomy (or classification) of the “goals of the educational process". He established a hierarchy of educational objectives, which attempts to divide cognitive objectives into subdivisions ranging from the simplest to the most complex behavior.Bloom's taxonomy is a very useful tool in teaching critical thinking to students and is effective in reminding teachers how to ask questions leading to an appropriate level of discussion and learning for students. The teacher guides the discussion by the types of questions he/she asks.Note: Bloom’s Taxonomy is briefly discussed in Chapter 1 of our text, Successful Inclusion Strategies for Secondary and Middle School Teachers.
5Critical Thinking vs. Memorization Bloom’s Taxonomy A Tool for Promoting Critical Thinking in the ClassroomThe levels of Blooms Taxonomy are:Knowledge - exhibiting previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers (key words to use in questioning: who, what, why, where, when, etc.)Sample Question: What were the four early civilizations?Comprehension - demonstrating understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas (key words: compare, contrast, interpret, explain, etc.)Sample Question: What geographic features do the four early civilizations have in common?Application - solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques, and rules in a different way (key words: apply build, choose, develop, organize, etc.)Sample Question: What modern cities (1600 or later) in the western hemisphere share the geographic features of the four early civilizations we have studied?Source: M-DCPS - The Comprehensive Reading Plan Companion &
6Critical Thinking vs. Memorization Bloom’s Taxonomy A Tool for Promoting Critical Thinking in the ClassroomThe levels of Blooms Taxonomy (continued):Analysis - examining and breaking information into parts by identifying motives or causes; making inferences and finding evidence to support generalizations (key words: analyze, classify, dissect, examine, assumption, etc.)Sample Question: What were the geographic drawbacks/disadvantages in the four early civilizations?Synthesis - compiling information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions (key words: combine, compile, construct, create, plan, predict, etc.)Sample Question: How would these early civilizations have supported themselves differently had they settled in highland areas instead of river valleys?Evaluation - presenting and defending opinions by making judgements about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria (key words: criticize, determine,evaluate, infuence, recommend, etc)Sample Question: If you were to establish a new civilization in today’s world, would you seek the same geographic characteristics for your site?Source: M-DCPS - The Comprehensive Reading Plan Companion &
7Preparing Students for the Future This article discounts the notion that some subjects are more intellectual and that all students should strive to excel in them. Students should be able to choose a nonacademic program with pride and confidence.It is the challenge for the teacher to figure out how to present the material that they have to present (curriculum), in a way that makes the students go "ah huh!" (real life application).....and they can apply it to different situations throughout their life.Teaching our students to be critical thinkers (in any subject) means teaching them how apply the knowledge they acquire in school.
8Preparing Students for the Future Many students would be better served in technical education classes that prepare them for the careers in which they are likely to work. Research shows that many of the careers expected to open up in the future do not require a college degree. Students should be given opportunities to find a subject area to connect with and that can relate to their every day life and equip them for future professions.Every job in our society is purposeful and should be valued. Whether you are a scientist, a cook, a garbage man or a secretary, no one should judge what is the most valued occupation. It's important to teach kids the importance of doing what they love and giving them the outlets to succeed at that.
9How do we teach children in our classrooms what is demanded from us via organized curriculum without them zoning out in class, missing its applicable importance?When they leave your classroom, will they be able to take the skills and knowledge we have taught them and apply it to the “real world”?The following exercises demonstrate how you can teach Mathematics to students in a way that grabs their attention and shows its applicability to “real life”.
10How is Math involved in your occupation of choice? Brainstorm for a moment……What is your dream job? Think of the hobbies that you enjoy most. Think of responsibilities in your life that may not be fun, but necessary. Do any of your thoughts involve math? More than likely they definitely do! Let’s look at some example of why math is important, and how it applies to our everyday lives; for the rest of our lives.What is your dream job?How is Math involved in your occupation of choice?Carpenter? In every possible situation with carpentry you use math. How long is the material, how much material, when is the completion date, how much do you charge for the job, how much do you pay for the job? Any good carpenter is good at math!Musician? Musicians write lyrics need to match syllables to a time signature. A music tech uses math to enhance digital sound. Mike techs need to figure when they do their echo loops.
11Nature? Math is incorporated into many aspects of nature enjoyment. What are your hobbies?Cooking? Cooking IS math. Many cooks estimate ingredients (a “pinch” here, a “bit” there), however; they must have a basic understanding of measurements. Bakers, however, almost always are exact in their measurements, and often have to improvise recipes. (Cut in half/ double).Take a look at the following clip to learn more about math in cooking:Nature? Math is incorporated into many aspects of nature enjoyment.Look at the following two websites to see how nature IS math:What are your hobbies?Cooking? Cooking IS math. Many cooks estimate ingredients (a “pinch” here, a “bit” there), however; they must have a basic understanding of measurements. Bakers, however, almost always are exact in their measurements, and often have to improvise recipes. (Cut in half/ double).Take a look at the following clip to learn more about math in cooking:Nature? Math is incorporated into many aspects of nature enjoyment.Look at the following two websites to see how nature IS math:
12How does math enter your life every day, especially as you grow older? Paying bills, time management and budgeting are just a few major ways in which we use math from day to day.
13Teacher – Training and Curriculum Flexibility Teaching Critical ThinkingMany students do not know how to use critical thinking because their teachers are focused on teaching in ways that are true to their field, rather than to the student’s best interest. For example, a science teacher teaches students to think like a scientist, rather than how to apply science to their own life because that is what they are trained to do. The author believes that he does not need to be able to do experiments for himself because he can follow popular science and any reputable scientist's work. Teaching students where to look for quality materials to do the experiment would be a worthwhile venture. He does not need to be the expert on the experiment, but he does need to know how to teach the students to think critically about that experiment, where to find info, etc.Teachers often give out too much information about what is to be learned, rather than allowing the student to explore, experience, and learn on their own. Teachers need to make the content relevant and applicable, using real-life experiences and scenarios. They should be cautious of getting caught up on state test scores, and be authentic, original teachers.
14Teacher – Training and Curriculum Flexibility Many teachers are given little freedom to promote critical thinking because they are given a specific curriculum to follow and have no flexibility in lesson planning. Teachers know what will be on the standardized tests given each year and they are accountable to getting their students to improve their scores. They don’t feel they have the time to go above and beyond basic knowledge.Funding and other major decision making are based off tests which are formatted in such a way that promotes memorization over critical thinking