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A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations behavioral wanting or needing to obtain desirable consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesirable consequences.

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Presentation on theme: "A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations behavioral wanting or needing to obtain desirable consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesirable consequences."— Presentation transcript:

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2 A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations behavioral wanting or needing to obtain desirable consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesirable consequences anticipated or actual; wanting or needing something as elicited by classical conditioning (bio-behavioral). biological wanting or needing an increase or decrease in stimulation or arousal in order to resolve boredom (under-stimulation) or reduce some form of stress or tension (psycho-physiologically over-stimulation); wanting or needing to decrease hunger, thirst, pain, terror, sex drive, etc., which also involves decreasing aversive internal physical stimulation; wanting or needing to sleep, rest, or wake up; wanting or needing to have physical control of ones body; wanting or needing to act on anger against others (bio-emotional- social); wanting or needing to act on a psycho-physiological feeling of love for someone, oneself, or other things such as animals, nature, and religious beliefs (bio-social); wanting or needing to feel safe and secure (bio-emotional-social). Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt and available on his website. Used here with his written permission.

3 A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations cognitive wanting or needing to attend to something interesting, challenging, promising, or threatening; wanting or needing to acquire knowledge or understanding; wanting or needing to decrease cognitive dissonance, inconsistency, or uncertainty among thoughts and beliefs and associated behavior; wanting or needing to solve a problem or eliminate a threat or risk; wanting or needing to eliminate inconsistency between ones bad actions and ones need for self-esteem mind games or distorting the facts in ones own favor; wanting or needing to be optimistic or hopeful; wanting or needing to perceive sensory input in a manner that gives one a sense of being oriented and having cognitive control; wanting or needing self-respect or a positive self-concept; wanting or needing to grow and to achieve specific goals; wanting or needing to create something good or beautiful; wanting or needing to be in control of ones life; wanting or needing to believe in a supreme being or creator who values humans enough to give them immortality; wanting or needing to feel competent; wanting or needing to attribute causes to events. Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with written permission.Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with written permission

4 A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations affective wanting or needing to increase specific good feelings and moods; wanting or needing to decrease specific bad feelings and moods; wanting or needing to act on feelings of empathy (bio-soc-emotional); wanting or needing a thrill (sensation seeking or thrill seeking). social wanting or needing to imitate models with status who are able to obtain rewards; wanting or needing to be valued and admired by significant others (cognitive-behavioral); wanting or needing to help and support others in need when one is being empathetic and not reacting to fear; wanting or needing to punish those one believes have wronged them or wronged someone they love or care about (bio-social); wanting or needing to help others in spite of threats to self and related fear – courage (social-affective); wanting or needing others to care about (social-affective). wanting or needing to be socially responsible and socially conscious. Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with written permission

5 Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004 Instincts Drives Goals/Incentives Excitement/Arousal Achievement Friendship/Affiliation Self-Fulfillment Power Many explanations have been given for why human beings do what they do: These explanations of motivation can be divided into five categories: behavioral biological emotional cognitive social

6 Motivation Defined The following definitions reflect the consensus that motivation is an internal state (sometimes described as a need, desire, or want) that activates behavior and/or thought and gives either or both direction. –An internal state or condition that activates behavior and gives it direction; –A desire or want that energizes and directs goal- oriented behavior; –The influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior; –The arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior; –Physiological and psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior (Davis and Palladino, 2005). Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission

7 Types of Motivation INTRINSIC VSEXTRINSIC Arrangement by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004

8 Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivators Intrinsic motivator: » » Some behaviors have directly rewarding results that satisfy drives (e.g. food when hungry, entertainment when bored). » » Many behaviors are engaged in because they are valued, beneficial to self and/or others, and elicit rewarding feelings (e.g., pride, self-worth, compassion). Extrinsic motivator: » » Externally available stimulus not related to the satisfaction of immediate drives, desires, or needs (e.g. money). » » Includes immediate external environmental consequences of behavior, and others encouragement. Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Source: Bell, Vaughan (2002). Motivation and Emotion. PPT slide retrieved from http://www.cf.ac.uk/psych/home/bellv1/conf/VaughanMotivationEmotionLecture2004.ppt#5 Accompanying MS Word Lecture at http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=fast+route+is+quick%2C+inaccurate&btnG=Search. Written permission granted.http://www.cf.ac.uk/psych/home/bellv1/conf/VaughanMotivationEmotionLecture2004.ppt#5http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=fast+route+is+quick%2C+inaccurate&btnG=Search

9 Sources of Motivation Explanations regarding the sources of motivation can be categorized as extrinsic (outside the person) or intrinsic (inside the person). Intrinsic sources can be subcategorized as (a) body (physical), (b) mind (mental), (c) mind (feeling), or (d) transpersonal (spiritual). Needs are dispositions toward action that are associated with subcategories (a-c) above. It appears likely that the initiation of behavior may be more related to emotions and/or the affective domain (optimism vs. pessimism; self-esteem; etc.), while persistence may be more related to conation (volition) or will and ones goal-orientation. Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission.

10 MOTIVATION EXTRINSICINTRINSIC Copied with written permission from Professor Bill Huitts. Those interested in locating the works cited in these slides should visit his website at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/motivation/motivate.html. Motivation is one of many topics he covers. For a complete list, go to the index at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/edpsyindxc.html. Dr. Bill Huitt is a helpful and informed professor who would be willing to assist you online if you have a question. Operant Conditioning Social Cognition CognitionAffectConation BiologySpirituality

11 Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his written permission.

12 1. Biological 1a. Human Instincts, if they exist, are involuntary, unlearned, and triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli. 1b. Drive Reduction views motivation as reducing physiological imbalances. A drive is an internal motivational state that is manifest as a physical need. 1c. Optimum Arousal-Level proposes that we seek an optimum level of arousal and that our level at any given time can be too high or too low. Any form of stimulation or cognitive activity affects arousal, but each is qualitatively unique. Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission.

13 Instinct theories of motivation were among the first and were popular in the early 20 th century (e.g. McDougall, 1908). They began to decline in popularity in 1930 with the introduction of Behaviorism. Some of the first theories of motivation attributed human behavior to instincts. Freuds explanation of motivation is rooted in a belief in instincts. One 1920's list included the following human instincts: 1a. INSTINCT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION McDougall, William (1908, 2003). Introduction to Social Psychology, 30 th Edition. Dover Publications. Adapted by Dr. Gordon Vessels. acquisitiveness escape mating rivalrysubmission cleanliness fear modesty secretiveness sympathy combativeness food-seekingparental love self-assertion ? constructiveness hunting play shyness ? curiosity jealousy repulsion sociability ?

14 1b. Biological Drives Drive-Reduction Theory (1940s and 50s) Proposes that a physiological need creates an aroused state (a drive) that motivates a person to satisfy this need. Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst) We act to reduce the push exerted by drives, internal stimuli that represent biological needs. Behavior helps us to maintain homeostasis, or a steady biological state. When an internal system is out of balance, a drive builds up to force balance restoration. Typically primary and secondary drives are identified. Still, our behavior is not always consistent with our drives. You may be hungry right now, but you're not eating. Perhaps the biggest hole in this theory is that some behaviors do not decrease internal tensions, they increase them. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Benoit, Anthony (2002). Emotion and Motivation: Module 33-38 course outline. Retrieved from http://environmentalet.org/psy111/motimotion.htm#theoriesm

15 1b. Drive Theory (internal) vs 2. Incentive Theory (external) 1b. Drive theories stress internal factors in motivating behavior; drives are often tied to physiological processes such as thirst, sex, and aggression i.e. they might exist regardless of the outside world. 2. Incentive theories stress the influence of external stimuli or events. i.e. something external stimulates us directionally e.g. the smell of baking bread may induce hunger. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Source: Bell, Vaughan (2004). Motivation and emotion PPT lecture presentation. Used as a source with written permission. Retrieved from http://www.cf.ac.uk/psych/home/bellv1/conf/VaughanMotivationEmotionLecture2004.ppt#6 Accompanying MS Word lecture at http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=fast+route+is+quick%2C+inaccurate&btnG=Search.http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=fast+route+is+quick%2C+inaccurate&btnG=Search

16 1950s & 1960s: The Post-Drive-Theory Years These are transitional decades Two post-drive theories –1c. Arousal theory (biological theory 3) Environment affects how aroused the brain becomes psycho- physiologically. A curvilinear relationship between arousal and behavior (see next three slides). –2. Incentive theory (behavioral theory) Motivational states could be acquired through experience and external stimuli New motivational concepts: incentives Moment-to-moment changes of motivation Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

17 low mediumhigh Performance Arousal Arousal and Peak Performance low medium high Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 We perform best when the tasks or challenges we take on produce a moderate level of arousal. Task difficulty factors into this with low-difficulty tasks yielding lower arousal than high-difficulty tasks.

18 Arousal: Yerkes-Dodson Law U-shaped curvilinear relationship between arousal and performance Tasks of moderate difficulty LOW AROUNSAL HIGH AROUSAL OPTIMUM AROUSAL PERFORMANCE % 100 0 75 50 25 Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Adapted from Craig, Scotty (2002). Motivation and emotions, a PPT presentation retrieved from http://www.psyc.memphis.edu/students/craig/1102/12 Motivation%20&%20Emotions.ppt#1

19 Arousal: Yerkes-Dodson Law Tasks low in difficulty PERFORMANCE % LOW AROUNSAL HIGH AROUSAL OPTIMUM AROUSAL 100 75 50 25 0 Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Adapted from Craig, Scotty (2002). Motivation and emotions, a PPT presentation retrieved from http://www.psyc.memphis.edu/students/craig/1102/12Motivation%20&%20Emotions.ppt#1

20 Arousal: Yerkes-Dodson Law Tasks of high difficulty PERFORMANCE % LOW AROUNSAL HIGH AROUSAL OPTIMUM AROUSAL 100 75 50 25 Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Adapted from Craig, Scoty (2002). Motivation and emotions, a PPT presentation retrieved from http://www.psyc.memphis.edu/students/craig/1102/12Motivation%20&%20Emotions.ppt#1

21 2. Behavioral Theory (Incentives) Each of the two major theoretical models in behavioral psychology posits a primary motivational factor. Classical conditioning states that biological responses to associated stimuli energize and direct behavior. This does not explain motivation to the extent that operant conditioning does. Operant conditioning proposes that the primary factor is the consequences of behavior and related expectations via conditioning: the application of positive or negative reinforcers provides incentives to increase behavior; the application of positive or negative punishers provides disincentives that decrease behavior. 2. Behavioral Theory (Incentives) Each of the two major theoretical models in behavioral psychology posits a primary motivational factor. Classical conditioning states that biological responses to associated stimuli energize and direct behavior. This does not explain motivation to the extent that operant conditioning does. Operant conditioning proposes that the primary factor is the consequences of behavior and related expectations via conditioning: the application of positive or negative reinforcers provides incentives to increase behavior; the application of positive or negative punishers provides disincentives that decrease behavior. Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his written permission

22 Cognitive dissonance theory is similar to disequilibrium in Piagets theory of cognitive development. CD theory states that when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs, two actions, or between a belief and an action, we will act to resolve these discrepancies and distort the facts to our advantage if necessary. Beliefs about self can be involved, and protecting self-esteem is often pivotal 3. Cognitive Theories 3a Cognitive Dissonance Theory

23 3a. Cognitive Dissonance Festinger (1957) proposed a very specific cognitive source of motivation that produces a motivating psychophysiological state. They discovered what happens when a person is faced with a combination of their own actions, beliefs, and thoughts that are contradictory, conflicting, inconsistent, or dissonant. According to Festinger this causes a a tension or cognitive dissonance, often resolved through rationalization and other reality distortions. For example, thinking or behaving in a manner that is inconsistent with ones moral standards or ones positive opinion of self would cause this tension. Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

24 The second approach is (Heider, 1958). Every individual tries to explain success or failure through "attributions," which are either internal or external, and either under ones control (effort, ability) or out of ones control (luck, task difficulty). Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal. Relations. New York: Wiley. 3b. Attribution Theory

25 3b. What is Attribution Theory Attribution theory is concerned with answering the question, Why do people do what they do? It is a theory concerned with how people formulate explanations about the causes of their own behavior and that of others. The causal explanations assume that behavior is caused by things either inside or outside the person, and within or outside their control. People attribute a causal explanations to an atypical behavior because they want to make sense of it. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

26 3b. Fritz Heider & Attribution Theory As far back as 1944, Heider hypothesised that... 1. People perceive behavior as being caused; and 2. The causes of behavior are thought to be either inside or outside the person. Heider concluded in 1958 that people are naïve lay scientists who explain the causes of events as best they can. Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Heider, F. (1944). Social perception and phenomenal causality. Psychological Review, 51, 358-374. Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal. Relations. New York: Wiley.

27 3b. Dispositional & Situational Attributions Internal (dispositional) attributions: internal characteristics such as attitude, mood, ability, or personality. External (situational) attributions: behavior has been caused by outside factors, which –Implies the actor could not help it and had no control over it Planned behaviors are attributed internally. Involuntary behaviors... internal or external. Attributions of cause reflect what the observer perceives as the person or event responsible. Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 London South Bank University (2005). Information retrieved from http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/psycho/teaching/ppfiles/devsoco-attribution.ppt#5

28 Weiners theory focuses on achievement. It identifies (a) ability, (b) effort, (c) task difficulty, and (d) luck as causes to which achievement or lack thereof is attributed. Furthermore, attributions are scaled along three dimensions: (a) locus of control, (b) stability, and (c) controllability. Causal attributions affect reactions to success or failure (e.g. a perceived internal locus of control brings a positive feeling of success and a willingness to take credit). 3b. Weiners Attribution Theory Slide Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 London South Bank University (2005). Information retrieved from http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/psycho/teaching/ppfiles/devsoco-attribution.ppt#5

29 3b. Weiners Attribution Theory StableUnstable Internal AbilityEffort External Task Difficulty Luck Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 To what is success attributed? What is the cause? Locus of Control

30 3b. Weiners AttributionTheory High AchieversLow Achievers Locus of Control Perceived internal locus Perceived external locus Stability Perceived high ability Often doubt their ability Controllability Confidence and high self-esteem Low self- confidence and subject to chance Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

31 3b. Attribution Dimensions & Combinations InternalExternal StableUnstableStableUnstable Controllable Usual Effort Special Effort Help or No Help from Others Special Help or No Help from Others Not Controllable AbilityMood Task Difficulty Luck or Chance Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 London South Bank University (2005). Information retrieved from http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/psycho/teaching/ppfiles/devsoco-attribution.ppt#5

32 4a. Vroom (1964) proposes that Motivation = Perceived Probability of Success (Expectancy) X Connection Between Success and Reward (Instrumentality) X Value of Obtaining the Goal (Value). Since the three factors of Value, Expectancy, and Instrumentality are multiplied by each other, a low value in one will result in a low value in motivation. If one doesn't believe he can be successful OR does not see a connection between his activity and reward OR does not value the results of success, then motivation is lacking. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley. 4. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories or Expectancy or Value-Expectancy Theories

33 Reinforcement Value refers to the desirability of these outcomes. Things we want to happen, that we are attracted to, have a high reinforcement value. 4b. Rotters Theory Combines Behaviorism and Personality Research To understand behavior, one must take (a) the individual (life history of learning and experiences) and (b) the environment (stimuli the person is aware of and responding to) into account. If you change the way the person thinks, or change the environment he or she is responding to, you change behavior. Behavior Potential is the likelihood of engaging in a particular behavior in a specific situation. Expectancy is the subjective probability that a given behavior will lead to a particular outcome, or reinforcer. Behavior Potential (BP), Expectancy (E) and Reinforcement Value (RV) can be combined into a predictive formula for behavior: BP = f(E & RV) Psychological Situation. Although the psychological situation does not figure directly into Rotter's formula for predicting behavior, he believes it is always important to keep in mind that different people interpret the same situation differently. = f Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. New York: Prentice Hall. Slide designed by Dr. Gordon Vessels, 2005.

34 Atkinsons (1957) expectancy-value theory states that achievement, performance, persistence, and choice are directly linked to an individuals expectancy- related and task-value beliefs. Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behaviors. Psychological Review, 64, 359-372. The expectancy aspect focuses on beliefs about efficacy, competence, expectations for success, and failure, plus feelings of control over outcomes. The value aspect focuses on incentives, personality, character, and reasons for engaging in activities. Most expectancy-value theorists see expectancies and values as positively related. Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behaviors. Psychological Review, 64, 359-372. 4c. Expectancy-Value Theory (Cognitive Behavioral)

35 4e. Values-Expectations + Internal-External Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl (1995) proposed 5 factors as the sources: (1) Instrumental Motivation (rewards and punishers), (2) Intrinsic Process Motivation (enjoyment, fun), (3) Goal Internalization (self-determined values and goals), (4) Internal Self- Concept-Based Motivation (matching behavior with internally-developed ideal self), and (5) External Self Concept-based Motivation (matching behavior with externally-developed ideal self). Individuals are influenced by all five factors, though in varying degrees that change from situation to situation. Leonard, Nancy, Beauvais, Laura Lynn, and Scholl, Richard W. (1995). A Self-concept based model of work motivation. Paper presented at the annual Academy of Management meeting. Retrieved from http://www.cba.uri.edu/Scholl/Papers/Self_Concept_Motivation.HTM. Factors one and five are external. Individuals who are instrumentally motivated are influenced by immediate actions in the environment (e.g. operant conditioning); individuals who are self-concept motivated are influenced by their constructions of external demands and ideals (e.g., social cognition). Factors two, three, and four are internal. Intrinsic means the specific task is interesting and provides immediate internal reinforcement (e.g., cognitive or humanistic theory). The individual with a goal-internalization orientation is task-oriented (e.g., humanistic or social cognition theory); the person with an internal self-concept orientation is influenced by individual constructions of the ideal self (humanistic or psychoanalytic theory). Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with the written permission of Bill Huitt.

36 5. Social Learning/Cognition Theories Social learning theory suggests that modeling (imitating others) and vicarious reinforcement (watching others have consequences applied to their behavior) are important motivators. Associated with Bandura. Social cognition theory proposes reciprocal determinism. In this view, the environment, an individual's behavior, and the individual's characteristics (e.g., knowledge, emotions, cognitive development) influence and are influenced by each other. Albert Bandura highlights the concepts of self-efficacy (the belief that a particular action goal can be accomplished) and self-regulation (the (a) establishment of goals, (b) development of a plan, (c) commitment to implement that plan, (d) implementation of the plan, and (e) subsequent reflection and modification or redirection). All of these concepts are incorporated into various eclecticexpectancy and values and expectancy theories to be described and elaborated in the next few slides. Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission.

37 5a. Banduras Social-Cognitive Theory Banduras social-cognitive model of motivation places emphasis on self-efficacy. Bandura defined self-efficacy as individuals confidence in their ability to organize and execute a given course of action to solve a problem or accomplish a task; he characterized it as a multidimensional construct that varies in strength, generality, and level (or difficulty) (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002, p. 110). Self-efficacy focuses on EXPECTATIONS: Expectations for success (Outcome Expectations) a belief that certain behaviors will result in certain outcomes. Efficacy Expectations a belief about whether or not one can perform the behaviors necessary to attain a certain outcome Extracted from Eccles, Allan & Wigfield, Jacquelyn (2002). Development of Achievement Motivation, First Edition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

38 Bandura mentions several motives for imitating a model: a. past reinforcement b. promised reinforcement (incentives) c. vicarious reinforcement -- seeing and recalling the model being reinforced. These are traditionally viewed as things that cause learning Bandura proposes instead that they cause us to show what we have learned, that is, they are motives. Negative motivations give us reason not to imitate: d. past punishment. e. promised punishment (disincentives) d. vicarious punishment. He states that punishment does not work as well as Reinforcement and can produce undesirable consequences. 5b. Banduras Social Learning Theory Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his writtenpermission

39 6a. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs According to Maslow, there are several types of needs (physiological, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these deficiency needs. As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self- actualization (Gwynne, 1997, para 3). 6. Humanistic Theories of Motivation Gwynne, Robert (1997). Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM Abraham Maslow is known for his hierarchy of needs theory. He proposed that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower-level or deficiency needs must be satisfied before activities that could satisfy higher-level needs can be seriously pursued.

40 6a. Maslow's Metamotivation Self actualizing people are motivated differently than those who are not self-actualizing. Maslow calls this Metamotivation or B-Motivation for (Being Motivation). Self-actualizers are not preoccupied by reducing tensions but by the desire to enrich their lives. The motivation to self actualize is intrinsic – actions for the sake of actions rather than for some external reward. Maslow's D – Motivation or Deficiency Motivation D-Motivation rectifies deficiencies and the physical, emotional, and cognitive tension or discomfort associated with them – biologic, psychological gratification through lower level needs Falikowski, A. (2002). Mastering Human Relations, 3rd Edition. Pearson Education. Summary information on Motivation retrieved from Karen Hamiltons webpage at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsymot.html. Slide arrangement by Dr. Gordon Vessels, 2005.

41 Maslows Needs in Detail Extracted from http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM Physiological Needs Physiological needs are very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep, sex, etc. When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are alleviated, we may think about other things. Safety Needs Safety needs have to do with establishing stability and consistency in a chaotic world. These needs are mostly psychological in nature. We need the security of a home and family. However, if a family is dysfunction, i.e., an abusive husband, the wife cannot move to the next level because she is constantly concerned for her safety. Love and belongingness have to wait until she is no longer cringing in fear. Many in our society cry out for law and order because they do not feel safe enough to go for a walk in their neighborhood. Many people, particularly those in the inner cities, unfortunately, are stuck at this level. In addition, safety needs sometimes motivate people to be religious. Religions comfort us with the promise of a safe secure place after we die and leave the insecurity of this world. Love Needs Love and belongingness are next on the ladder. Humans have a desire to belong to groups: clubs, work groups, religious groups, family, gangs, etc. We need to feel loved (non-sexual) by others, to be accepted by others. Performers appreciate applause. We need to be needed. Beer commercials, in addition to playing on sex, also often show how beer makes for camaraderie. When was the last time you saw a beer commercial with someone drinking beer alone? Esteem Needs There are two types of esteem needs. First is self-esteem which results from competence or mastery of a task. Second, there's the attention and recognition that comes from others. This is similar to the belongingness level, however, wanting admiration has to do with the need for power. People who have all of their lower needs satisfied, often drive very expensive cars because doing so raises their level of esteem. Hey, look what I can afford-peon! " Self-Actualization The need for self-actualization is "the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming." People who have everything can maximize their potential. They can seek knowledge, peace, esthetic experiences, self-fulfillment, oneness with God, etc. It is usually middle-class to upper-class students who take up environmental causes, join the Peace Corps, go off to a monastery, etc. Gwynne, Robert (1997). Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from http://web.utk.edu/~gwynne/maslow.HTM

42 6b. GLASSERS CONTROL/CHOICE THEORY Glasser's Basic Needs: 1. need to survive and reproduce 2. need to belong, love, share, cooperate 3. need for power 4. need for freedom 5. need for fun or pleasure and excitement All basic needs are produced by genetics and biology. Everyone is motivated. All people control their behavior to maximize need satisfaction: behavior is inspired by what a person wants and needs most (love, power, freedom, etc.) BUT how needs are satisfied is not universal. We all have a picture album in mind where we store images of what we want and what we have. We have an ideal world in mind. The picture of the ideal may change. Some people have an unrealistic picture. If what we want and what we get is equivalent, then little frustration occurs. The greater the frustration, the greater the motivation to act ( this explains why people fly into action). Falikowski, A. (2002). Mastering Human Relations, 3rd Edition. Pearson Education. Summary information on Motivation retrieved from Karen Hamiltons webpage at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsymot.html. Slide arrangement by Dr. Gordon Vessels, 2005.

43 6c. Achievement Need Theory Approach Success Avoid Failure Focus on Pride of Success Focus on Shame of Failure Personality Situational Resultant Emotional Behavior Traits Conditions Tendency Reactions Observed Motive to Achieve Success Motive to Avoid Failure Probability of Success Incentive Value of Success OR Seek out achievement situations, 50/50 risks, challenges; evaluative situations; good performance Avoid achievement situations; avoid risk of failure/shame; perform poorly in evaluating situations. X = = OR X Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his written consent.

44 McClelland (McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953) proposed that all humans have a distinct internal motive to: Seek achievement Attain realistic but challenging goals Advance Individuals are thought to posses a strong need for feedback regarding their achievement and progress, and need a sense of accomplishment. 6c. Need for Achievement Theory Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

45 7. Psychoanalytic Theory of Motivation The psychoanalytic theories of motivation propose a variety of influences. Freud (1990) suggested that all action or behavior is a result of potentially harmful internal, biological instincts classified into two categories: life (sexual) and death (aggression). Freud's students broke with him over this concept. For example, Erikson proposed that interpersonal and social relationships are fundamental along with invariant developmental crises that must be resolved or responded to in some way; Adler proposed that the need for power is basic; Jung proposed that temperament and the search for meaning is basic. Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission


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