2A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations behavioral wanting or needing to obtain desirable consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesirable consequences — anticipated or actual;wanting or needing something as elicited by classical conditioning (bio-behavioral).biologicalwanting or needing an increase or decrease in stimulation or arousal in order to resolve boredom (under-stimulation) or reduce some form of stress or tension (psycho-physiologically over-stimulation);wanting or needing to decrease hunger, thirst, pain, terror, sex drive, etc., which also involves decreasing aversive internal physical stimulation;• wanting or needing to sleep, rest, or wake up;• wanting or needing to have physical control of one’s body;• wanting or needing to act on anger against others (bio-emotional-social);• wanting or needing to act on a psycho-physiological feeling of love for someone, oneself, or other things such as animals, nature, and religious beliefs (bio-social);• wanting or needing to feel safe and secure (bio-emotional-social).Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt and available on his website. Used here with his written permission.
3A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations cognitivewanting or needing to attend to something interesting, challenging, promising, or threatening;wanting or needing to acquire knowledge or understanding;wanting or needing to decrease cognitive dissonance, inconsistency, or uncertainty among thoughts and beliefs and associated behavior;wanting or needing to solve a problem or eliminate a threat or risk;wanting or needing to eliminate inconsistency between one’s bad actions and one’s need for self-esteem — mind games or distorting the facts in one’s own favor;wanting or needing to be optimistic or hopeful;wanting or needing to perceive sensory input in a manner that gives one a sense of being oriented and having cognitive control;wanting or needing self-respect or a positive self-concept;wanting or needing to grow and to achieve specific goals;wanting or needing to create something good or beautiful;wanting or needing to be in control of one’s life;wanting or needing to believe in a supreme being or creator who values humans enough to give them immortality;• wanting or needing to feel competent;• wanting or needing to attribute causes to events.Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with written permission.Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with written permission
4A Beginning Common Sense List of Motivations affective wanting or needing to increase specific good feelings and moods;wanting or needing to decrease specific bad feelings and moods;wanting or needing to act on feelings of empathy (bio-soc-emotional);wanting or needing a “thrill” (sensation seeking or thrill seeking).social wanting or needing to imitate models with status who are able to obtain rewards;wanting or needing to be valued and admired by significant others (cognitive-behavioral);wanting or needing to help and support others in need when one is being empathetic and not reacting to fear;wanting or needing to punish those one believes have wronged them or wronged someone they love or care about (bio-social);• wanting or needing to help others in spite of threats to self and related fear – courage (social-affective);• wanting or needing others to care about (social-affective).• wanting or needing to be socially responsible and socially conscious.Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with written permission
5Many explanations have been given behavioral biological emotional for why human beings do what they do:InstinctsDrivesExcitement/ArousalGoals/IncentivesAchievementSelf-FulfillmentFriendship/AffiliationPowerThese explanations of motivation can be divided into five categories:behavioral biological emotionalcognitive socialArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004
6Motivation DefinedThe following definitions reflect the consensus that motivation is an internal state (sometimes described asa need, desire, or want) that activates behavior and/or thought and gives either or both direction.An internal state or condition that activates behaviorand gives it direction;A desire or want that energizes and directs goal-oriented behavior;The influence of needs and desires on the intensityand direction of behavior;The arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior;Physiological and psychological factors that accountfor the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior (Davis and Palladino, 2005).Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission
7Types of Motivation INTRINSIC VS EXTRINSIC Arrangement by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004
8Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivators Intrinsic motivator:Some behaviors have directly rewarding results that satisfy drives (e.g. food when hungry, entertainment when bored).Many behaviors are engaged in because they are valued, beneficial to self and/or others, and elicit rewarding feelings (e.g., pride, self-worth, compassion).Extrinsic motivator:Externally available stimulus not related to the satisfaction of immediate drives, desires, or needs (e.g. money).Includes immediate external environmental consequences of behavior, and others’ encouragement.Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005Source: Bell, Vaughan (2002). Motivation and Emotion. PPT slide retrieved from Accompanying MS Word Lecture at Written permission granted.
9Sources of MotivationExplanations regarding the sources of motivation can be categorized as extrinsic (outside the person) or intrinsic (inside the person).Intrinsic sources can be subcategorized as (a) body (physical), (b) mind (mental), (c) mind (feeling), or(d) transpersonal (spiritual).Needs are dispositions toward action that are associatedwith subcategories (a-c) above.It appears likely that the initiation of behavior may be more related to emotions and/or the affective domain (optimism vs. pessimism; self-esteem; etc.), while persistence may be more related to conation (volition) or will and one’s goal-orientation.Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission.
10MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC INTRINSIC Operant Conditioning Cognition Affect ConationSocial CognitionBiologySpiritualityCopied with written permission from Professor Bill Huitt’s. Those interested in locating the works cited in these slides should visit his website at Motivation is one of many topics he covers. For a complete list, go to the index atDr. Bill Huitt is a helpful and informed professor who would be willing to assist you online if you have a question.
11Theories of Motivation: 1. Biological 2. Behavioral 3. Cognitive 4. Social- Learning/Social- Cognition5. Humanistic6. PsychodynamicModified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his written permission.
121. Biological• 1a. Human Instincts, if they exist, are involuntary, unlearned, and triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli.• 1b. Drive Reduction views motivation as reducing physiological imbalances. A drive is an internal motivational state that is manifest as a physical need.• 1c. Optimum Arousal-Level proposes that we seek an optimum level of arousal and that our level at any given time can be too high or too low. Any form of stimulation or cognitive activity affects arousal, but each is qualitatively unique.Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission.
131a. INSTINCT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Instinct theories of motivation were among the first and werepopular in the early 20th century (e.g. McDougall, 1908). They beganto decline in popularity in 1930 with the introduction of Behaviorism.Some of the first theories of motivation attributed human behavior toinstincts. Freud’s explanation of motivation is rooted in a belief ininstincts. One 1920's list included the following human instincts:acquisitivenessescapematingrivalrysubmissioncleanlinessfearmodestysecretivenesssympathycombativenessfood-seekingparental loveself-assertion?constructivenesshuntingplayshynesscuriosityjealousyrepulsionsociabilityMcDougall, William (1908, 2003). Introduction to Social Psychology, 30th Edition. Dover Publications. Adapted by Dr. Gordon Vessels.
141b. Biological Drives Drive-Reduction Theory (1940s and 50s) Proposes that a physiological need creates an aroused state (a drive) that motivates a person to satisfy this need.Drive-reducingbehaviors(eating, drinking)Need(e.g., forfood, water)Drive(hunger, thirst)When the original instinct theory of motivation collapsedBLUE: physiological needPURPLE: psychological driveWe act to reduce the push exerted by drives, internal stimuli that represent biological needs. Behavior helps us to maintain homeostasis, or a steady biological state. When an internal system is out of balance, a drive builds up to force balance restoration. Typically primary and secondary drives are identified.Still, our behavior is not always consistent with our drives. You may be hungry right now, but you're not eating. Perhaps the biggest hole in this theory is that some behaviors do not decrease internal tensions, they increase them.Benoit, Anthony (2002). Emotion and Motivation: Module course outline. Retrieved fromArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
151b. Drive Theory (internal) vs 2. Incentive Theory (external) 1b. Drive theories stress internal factorsin motivating behavior; drives are oftentied to physiological processes such as thirst, sex, and aggression i.e. they might exist regardless of the outside world.2. Incentive theories stress the influenceof external stimuli or events. i.e. something external stimulates us directionally e.g. the smell of baking bread may induce hunger.Source: Bell, Vaughan (2004). Motivation and emotion PPT lecture presentation. Used as a source with written permission.Retrieved from Accompanying MS Word lecture atArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
161950s & 1960s: The Post-Drive-Theory Years These are transitional decadesTwo post-drive theories1c. Arousal theory (biological theory 3)Environment affects how aroused the brain becomes psycho-physiologically.A curvilinear relationship between arousal and behavior (see next three slides).2. Incentive theory (behavioral theory)Motivational states could be acquired through experience and external stimuliNew motivational concepts: incentivesMoment-to-moment changes of motivationArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
17Arousal and Peak Performance highPerformancemediumWe perform best when the tasks or challenges we take on produce a moderate level of arousal. Task difficulty factors into this with low-difficulty tasks yielding lower arousal than high-difficulty tasks.lowlowmediumhighArousalArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
18Arousal: Yerkes-Dodson Law U-shaped curvilinear relationshipbetween arousal and performance10075Tasks of moderatedifficultyPERFORMANCE %5025LOW AROUNSAL HIGH AROUSALOPTIMUM AROUSALAdapted from Craig, Scotty (2002). Motivation and emotions, a PPT presentation retrieved fromArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
19Arousal: Yerkes-Dodson Law 10075Tasks low in difficultyPERFORMANCE %5025LOW AROUNSAL HIGH AROUSALOPTIMUM AROUSALAdapted from Craig, Scotty (2002). Motivation and emotions, a PPT presentation retrieved fromArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
20Arousal: Yerkes-Dodson Law 10075Tasks of high difficultyPERFORMANCE %5025LOW AROUNSAL HIGH AROUSALOPTIMUM AROUSALAdapted from Craig, Scoty (2002). Motivation and emotions, a PPT presentation retrieved fromArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
212. Behavioral Theory (Incentives) Each of the two major theoretical models in behavioral psychology posits a primary motivational factor.Classical conditioning states that biological responses to associated stimuli energize and direct behavior. This does not explain motivation to the extent that operant conditioning does.Operant conditioning proposes that the primary factor is the consequences of behavior and related expectations via conditioning: the application of positive or negative “reinforcers” provides incentives to increase behavior; the application of positive or negative “punishers” provides disincentives that decrease behavior.Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his written permission
223a Cognitive Dissonance Theory 3. Cognitive Theories3a Cognitive Dissonance TheoryCognitive dissonance theory is similar to “disequilibrium” in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. CD theory states that when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs, two actions, or between a belief and an action, we will act to resolve these discrepancies and distort the facts to our advantage if necessary. Beliefs about self can be involved, and protecting self-esteem is often pivotal
233a. Cognitive Dissonance Festinger (1957) proposed a very specific cognitive source of motivation that produces a motivating psychophysiological state.They discovered what happens when a person is faced with a combination of their own actions, beliefs, and thoughts that are contradictory, conflicting, inconsistent, or dissonant.According to Festinger this causes a a tension or cognitive dissonance, often resolved through rationalization and other reality distortions.For example, thinking or behaving in a manner that is inconsistent with one’s moral standards or one’s positive opinion of self would cause this tension.Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Festinger, Leon & Carlsmith, James M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58,Available online at:Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
243b. Attribution TheoryThe second approach is (Heider, 1958). Every individual tries to explain success or failure through "attributions," which are either internal or external, and either under one’s control (effort, ability) or out of one’s control (luck, task difficulty). Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal. Relations. New York: Wiley.
253b. What is Attribution Theory Attribution theory is concerned withanswering the question, “Why do people dowhat they do?”It is a theory concerned with how peopleformulate explanations about the causes oftheir own behavior and that of others.The causal explanations assume that behavioris caused by things either inside or outside theperson, and within or outside their control.People attribute a causal explanations to anatypical behavior because they want to makesense of it.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
263b. Fritz Heider & Attribution Theory As far back as 1944, Heider hypothesisedthat . . .1. People perceive behavior as beingcaused; and2. The causes of behavior are thought to be either inside or outside the person.Heider, F. (1944). Social perception and phenomenal causality. Psychological Review, 51,Heider concluded in 1958 that people are“naïve lay scientists” who explain the causesof events as best they can.Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal. Relations. New York: Wiley.Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
273b. Dispositional & Situational Attributions Internal (dispositional) attributions: internal characteristics such as attitude, mood, ability, or personality.External (situational) attributions: behavior has been caused by outside factors, whichImplies the actor could not help it and had no control over itPlanned behaviors are attributed internally.Involuntary behaviors internal or external.Attributions of cause reflect what the observer perceives as the person or event responsible.London South Bank University (2005). Information retrieved fromSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
283b. Weiner’s Attribution Theory Weiner’s theory focuses on achievement.It identifies (a) ability, (b) effort, (c) task difficulty, and (d) luck as causes to which achievement or lack thereof is attributed.Furthermore, attributions are scaled along three dimensions: (a) locus of control, (b) stability, and (c) controllability.Causal attributions affect reactions to success or failure (e.g. a perceived internal locus of control brings a positive feeling of success and a willingness to take credit).London South Bank University (2005). Information retrieved fromSlide Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
293b. Weiner’s Attribution Theory To what is success attributed? What is the cause?StableUnstableInternalAbilityEffortExternalTask DifficultyLuckLocus of ControlArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
303b. Weiner’s AttributionTheory High AchieversLow AchieversLocus of ControlPerceivedinternallocusPerceived externalStabilityhighabilityOftendoubt theirControllabilityConfidenceand highself-esteemLow self-confidenceand subjectto chanceArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
313b. Attribution Dimensions & Combinations InternalExternalStableUnstableControllableUsualEffortSpecial EffortHelp or No Help from OthersSpecialNot ControllableAbilityMoodTask DifficultyLuck or ChanceLondon South Bank University (2005). Information retrieved fromSlide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
324. Cognitive-Behavioral Theories or “Expectancy” or “Value-Expectancy” Theories4a. Vroom (1964) proposes that Motivation = Perceived Probability of Success (Expectancy) X Connection Between Success and Reward (Instrumentality) X Value of Obtaining the Goal (Value). Since the three factors of Value, Expectancy, and Instrumentality are multiplied by each other, a low value in one will result in a low value in motivation. If one doesn't believe he can be successful OR does not see a connection between his activity and reward OR does not value the results of success, then motivation is lacking.Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.
334b. Rotter’s Theory Combines Behaviorism and Personality ResearchTo understand behavior, one must take (a) the individual (life history of learning and experiences) and (b) the environment (stimuli the person is aware of and responding to) into account.If you change the way the person thinks, or change the environment he or she is responding to, you change behavior.Reinforcement Value refers to the desirability of these outcomes. Things we want to happen, that we are attracted to, have a high reinforcement value.Behavior Potential is the likelihood of engaging in a particular behavior in a specific situation.Expectancy is the subjective probability that a given behavior will lead to a particular outcome,or reinforcer.= fBehavior Potential (BP), Expectancy (E) and Reinforcement Value (RV) can be combined into a predictive formula for behavior: BP = f(E & RV)Psychological Situation. Although the psychological situation does not figure directly into Rotter's formula for predicting behavior, he believes it is always important to keep in mind that different people interpret the same situation differently.Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. New York: Prentice Hall. Slide designed by Dr. Gordon Vessels, 2005.
344c. Expectancy-Value Theory (Cognitive Behavioral) Atkinson’s (1957) expectancy-value theory states thatachievement, performance, persistence, and choice are directly linked to an individual’s expectancy-related and task-value beliefs.Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk-taking behaviors. Psychological Review, 64,The expectancy aspect focuses on beliefs about efficacy, competence, expectations for success, and failure, plus feelings of control over outcomes.The value aspect focuses on incentives, personality, character, and reasons for engaging in activities.Most expectancy-value theorists see expectancies and values as positively related.
354e. Values-Expectations + Internal-External Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl (1995) proposed 5 factors as the sources: (1) Instrumental Motivation (rewards and punishers), (2) Intrinsic Process Motivation (enjoyment, fun),(3) Goal Internalization (self-determined values and goals), (4) Internal Self- Concept-Based Motivation (matching behavior with internally-developed ideal self), and (5) External Self Concept-based Motivation (matching behavior with externally-developed ideal self). Individuals are influenced by all five factors, though in varying degrees that change from situation to situation. Leonard, Nancy, Beauvais, Laura Lynn, and Scholl, Richard W. (1995). A Self-concept based model of work motivation. Paper presented at the annual Academy of Management meeting. Retrieved fromFactors one and five are external. Individuals who are instrumentally motivated are influenced by immediate actions in the environment (e.g. operant conditioning); individuals who are self-concept motivated are influenced by their constructions of external demands and ideals (e.g., social cognition).Factors two, three, and four are internal. Intrinsic means the specific taskis interesting and provides immediate internal reinforcement (e.g., cognitiveor humanistic theory). The individual with a goal-internalization orientation is task-oriented (e.g., humanistic or social cognition theory); the person with an internal self-concept orientation is influenced by individual constructions ofthe ideal self (humanistic or psychoanalytic theory).Modified version of a list developed by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with the written permission of Bill Huitt.
365. Social Learning/Cognition Theories Social learning theory suggests that modeling (imitating others) and vicarious reinforcement (watching others have consequences applied to their behavior) are important motivators. Associated with Bandura.Social cognition theory proposes reciprocal determinism. In this view, the environment, an individual's behavior, and the individual's characteristics (e.g., knowledge, emotions, cognitive development) influence and are influenced by each other.Albert Bandura highlights the concepts of self-efficacy (the belief that a particular action goal can be accomplished) and self-regulation (the (a) establishment of goals, (b) development of a plan, (c) commitment to implement that plan, (d) implementation of the plan, and (e) subsequent reflection and modification or redirection).All of these concepts are incorporated into various eclectic “expectancy” and “values and expectancy” theories to be described and elaborated in the next few slides.Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission.
375a. Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory Bandura’s social-cognitive model of motivation places emphasis on self-efficacy.“Bandura defined self-efficacy as individuals’ ‘confidence in their ability to organize and execute a given course of action to solve a problem or accomplish a task’; he characterized it as a ‘multidimensional construct that varies in strength, generality, and level (or difficulty)’ ” (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002, p. 110).Self-efficacy focuses on EXPECTATIONS:Expectations for success (Outcome Expectations) — abelief that certain behaviors will result in certain outcomes.Efficacy Expectations — a belief about whether or not onecan perform the behaviors necessary to attain a certainoutcomeExtracted from Eccles, Allan & Wigfield, Jacquelyn (2002). Development of Achievement Motivation, First Edition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
385b. Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Bandura mentions several motives for imitating a model:a. past reinforcement b. promised reinforcement (incentives) c. vicarious reinforcement -- seeing and recalling the model being reinforced.These are traditionally viewed as things that “cause” learningBandura proposes instead that they cause us to show whatwe have learned, that is, they are motives.Negative “motivations” give us reason not to imitate:d. past punishment. e. promised punishment (disincentives) d. vicarious punishment.He states that punishment does not work as well asReinforcement and can produce undesirable consequences.Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his writtenpermission
396. Humanistic Theories of Motivation 6a. Maslow's Hierarchy of NeedsAbraham Maslow is known for his hierarchy of needs theory. He proposedthat human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certainlower-level or deficiency needs must be satisfied before activities that couldsatisfy higher-level needs can be seriously pursued.“According to Maslow, there are several types of needs (physiological,safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can actunselfishly. He called these ‘deficiency needs.’ As long as we are motivatedto satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self-actualization” (Gwynne, 1997, para 3).Gwynne, Robert (1997). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from
40Maslow's “D – Motivation” or 6a. Maslow's “Metamotivation”Self actualizing people are motivated differently than those who are not self-actualizing. Maslow calls this Metamotivation or “B-Motivation” for (Being Motivation). Self-actualizers are not preoccupied by reducing tensions but by the desire to enrich their lives. The motivation to self actualize is intrinsic – actions for the sake of actions rather than for some external reward.Maslow's “D – Motivation” or“Deficiency Motivation”D-Motivation rectifies deficiencies and the physical, emotional, and cognitive tension or discomfort associated with them – biologic, psychological gratification through lower level needsFalikowski, A. (2002). Mastering Human Relations, 3rd Edition. Pearson Education. Summary information on Motivation retrieved from Karen Hamilton’s webpage at Slide arrangement by Dr. Gordon Vessels, 2005.
41Maslow’s Needs in Detail Extracted fromPhysiological Needs“Physiological needs are very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep, sex, etc. When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are alleviated, we may think about other things.”Safety Needs“Safety needs have to do with establishing stability and consistency in a chaotic world. These needs are mostly psychological in nature. We need the security of a home and family. However, if a family is dysfunction, i.e., an abusive husband, the wife cannot move to the next level because she is constantly concerned for her safety. Love and belongingness have to wait until she is no longer cringing in fear. Many in our society cry out for law and order because they do not feel safe enough to go for a walk in their neighborhood. Many people, particularly those in the inner cities, unfortunately, are stuck at this level. In addition, safety needs sometimes motivate people to be religious. Religions comfort us with the promise of a safe secure place after we die and leave the insecurity of this world.”Love Needs“Love and belongingness are next on the ladder. Humans have a desire to belong to groups: clubs, work groups, religious groups, family, gangs, etc. We need to feel loved (non-sexual) by others, to be accepted by others. Performers appreciate applause. We need to be needed. Beer commercials, in addition to playing on sex, also often show how beer makes for camaraderie. When was the last time you saw a beer commercial with someone drinking beer alone?”Esteem Needs“There are two types of esteem needs. First is self-esteem which results from competence or mastery of a task. Second, there's the attention and recognition that comes from others. This is similar to the belongingness level, however, wanting admiration has to do with the need for power. People who have all of their lower needs satisfied, often drive very expensive cars because doing so raises their level of esteem. ‘Hey, look what I can afford-peon!’ "Self-Actualization“The need for self-actualization is "the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming." People who have everything can maximize their potential. They can seek knowledge, peace, esthetic experiences, self-fulfillment, oneness with God, etc. It is usually middle-class to upper-class students who take up environmental causes, join the Peace Corps, go off to a monastery, etc.”Gwynne, Robert (1997). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from
426b. GLASSER’S CONTROL/CHOICE THEORY Glasser's Basic Needs:1. need to survive and reproduce2. need to belong, love, share, cooperate3. need for power4. need for freedom5. need for fun or pleasure and excitementAll basic needs are produced by genetics and biology. Everyone is motivated.All people control their behavior to maximize need satisfaction: behavior isinspired by what a person wants and needs most (love, power, freedom, etc.)BUT how needs are satisfied is not universal. We all have a picture album inmind where we store images of what we want and what we have. We have anideal world in mind. The picture of the ideal may change. Some people havean unrealistic picture. If what we want and what we get is equivalent, then littlefrustration occurs. The greater the frustration, the greater the motivation toact ( this explains why people fly into action).Falikowski, A. (2002). Mastering Human Relations, 3rd Edition. Pearson Education. Summary information on Motivation retrieved from Karen Hamilton’s webpage at Slide arrangement by Dr. Gordon Vessels, 2005.
436c. Achievement Need Theory Personality Situational Resultant Emotional BehaviorTraits Conditions Tendency Reactions ObservedProbability of SuccessIncentive Value of SuccessApproachSuccessFocus onPride ofSuccessSeek outachievement situations,50/50 risks,challenges;evaluative situations;good performanceAvoid achievementsituations;avoid risk of failure/shame;perform poorly in evaluating situations.Motive toAchieveSuccessMotive to Avoid FailureX=ORORAvoidFailureFocus onShame ofFailure=XModified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt, available on his website. Used here with his written consent.
446c. Need for Achievement Theory McClelland (McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953) proposed that all humans havea distinct internal motive to:Seek achievementAttain realistic but challenging goalsAdvanceIndividuals are thought to posses a strong need for feedback regarding their achievement and progress, and need a sense of accomplishment.Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
457. Psychoanalytic Theory of Motivation The psychoanalytic theories of motivation propose a variety of influences. Freud (1990) suggested that all action or behavior is a result of potentially harmful internal, biological instincts classified into two categories: life (sexual) and death (aggression). Freud's students broke with him over this concept.For example, Erikson proposed that interpersonal and social relationships are fundamental along with invariant developmental crises that must be resolved or responded to in some way; Adler proposed that the need for power is basic; Jung proposed that temperament and the search for meaning is basic.Modified version of information made available by Professor Bill Huitt on his website. Used here with his written permission