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Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism. Energy: Kinetic energy: Potential energy:

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism. Energy: Kinetic energy: Potential energy:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism

2 Energy: Kinetic energy: Potential energy:

3 Fig. 8-2 Climbing up converts the kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy. A diver has less potential energy in the water than on the platform. Diving converts potential energy to kinetic energy. A diver has more potential energy on the platform than in the water.

4 The First Law of Thermodynamics Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

6 Free-Energy Change,  G Free energy is a measure of a system’s instability, its tendency to change to a more stable state Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

7 Fig. 8-5 (a) Gravitational motion (b) Diffusion(c) Chemical reaction More free energy (higher G) Less stable Greater work capacity In a spontaneous change The free energy of the system decreases (∆G < 0) The system becomes more stable The released free energy can be harnessed to do work Less free energy (lower G) More stable Less work capacity

8 Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions in Metabolism An exergonic reaction: An endergonic reaction: Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

9 Fig. 8-6 Reactants Energy Free energy Products Amount of energy released (∆G < 0) Progress of the reaction (a) Exergonic reaction: energy released Products Reactants Energy Free energy Amount of energy required (∆G > 0) (b) Endergonic reaction: energy required Progress of the reaction

10 Fig. 8-7 (a) An isolated hydroelectric system ∆G < 0∆G = 0 (b) An open hydroelectric system ∆G < 0 (c) A multistep open hydroelectric system

11 The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP ATP: Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

12

13 Fig. 8-9 Inorganic phosphate Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P P P PP P + + H2OH2O i

14 Fig (b) Mechanical work: ATP binds noncovalently to motor proteins, then is hydrolyzed Membrane protein P i ADP + P Solute Solute transported P i VesicleCytoskeletal track Motor protein Protein moved (a) Transport work: ATP phosphorylates transport proteins ATP

15 The Regeneration of ATP Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

16 Fig P i ADP + Energy from catabolism (exergonic, energy-releasing processes) Energy for cellular work (endergonic, energy-consuming processes) ATP + H2OH2O


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