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176 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: OBJECT TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS and UML CLASS DIAGRAMS.

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Presentation on theme: "176 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: OBJECT TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS and UML CLASS DIAGRAMS."— Presentation transcript:

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2 176 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN: OBJECT TECHNOLOGY CONCEPTS and UML CLASS DIAGRAMS

3 177 1.Identify the information system’s purpose 2.Identify the information system’s actors and features 3.Identify Use Cases and create a Use Case Diagram 4.Identify Objects and their Classes and create a Class Diagram 5.Create Interaction/Scenario Diagrams 6.Create Detail Logic for Operations 7.Repeat activities 1-6 as required to refine the “blueprints” A Simplified Object-Oriented Systems Analysis & Conceptual Design Methodology Activities

4 178 Object-Oriented Technology Concepts Object Class Attributes Operations Relationships Messages Persistence State

5 179 Defining Objects An OBJECT is an abstraction of a person, place, thing, or concept within the problem domain that the information system must be aware of....Objects are “instantiated” (created)...the term “instance” is interchangeable with “object”

6 180 Defining Class A CLASS is a template (specification, blueprint) for a collection of objects that share a common set of attributes and operations. HealthClubMember Class Objects attributes operations

7 181 Objects have three responsibilities: 4 What they know about themselves – (e.g., Attributes) 4 What they do – (e.g., Operations) 4 What they know about other objects – (e.g., Relationships) Objects

8 182 Attributes (aka: properties, characteristics) An ATTRIBUTE is data that further describes an object instance. HealthClubMember Class Objects attributes firstName lastName etc... operations firstName lastName Mary Smith Susan Jones Jeff Norman etc...

9 183 An example of a Class showing Attribute Names and their Values studentName address shoeSize eyeColor weight dateOfBirth Susan McIntyre Greg Fisher Minder Chen Sally Athey Laura Applegate Margie Heltne Bill Martz Anna Easton 123 Franklin St. San Diego CA 765 Park Ave. San Diego CA 222 Dallas St. La Mesa CA 862 Grand Ave. Pacific Beach CA 914 Garnett La Jolla CA th St. El Cajon CA 876 Balboa Mission Beach CA 309 Del Mar Hts. Del Mar CA Blue Brown Blue Brown Blue Brown StudentInformation studentName address shoeSize eyeColor weight dateOfBirth etc... operations Class “template” 8 Object Examples With Attribute Values

10 184 Candidate Attributes Necessary Attributes studentSocialSecurityNumber studentFirstName studentMiddleInitial studentLastName studentAddress studentCity studentState studentZipcode studentTelephone yearGradFromHighSchool highSchoolGradePointAvg sATScore hobbies sports religiousPreference medicalCondition height weight shoeSize hairColor eyeColor gender etc... StudentInformation attributes studentSocialSecurityNumber studentFirstName studentMiddleInitial studentLastName studentAddress studentCity studentState studentZipcode studentTelephone yearGradFromHighSchool highSchoolGradePointAvg sATScore religiousPreference medicalCondition gender etc... ANALYSIS operations What are the necessary attributes?

11 185 Single-Valued Attributes Example studentName studentIDNumber eyeColor height weight dateOfBirth Susan McIntyre Bill Martz Blue Brown ft 9in 5ft 6in (each object has one and only one value for each attribute at any moment in time) Mutually Exclusive Attribute Values Example employeeName employeeNumber hourlyRate weeklySalary Susan McIntyre Bill Martz $ $ mutually exclusive attributes with values (the presence of an object’s attribute value necessitates the absence of a value for another attribute value for the same object)

12 186 studentName studentIDNumber collegeAttended collegeGradePointAvg Multi-Valued Attributes Example studentName studentIDNumber collegeAttended collegeGradePointAvg Susan McIntyre Bill Martz Maria Carey Grossmont C.C. Point Loma NY Univ. Golden Gate Georgia State U of San Diego multi-valued attributes with values Susan McIntyre Bill Martz Maria Carey Grossmont C.C. Point Loma NY Univ. Golden Gate Georgia State U of San Diego Notice the redundancy of data values for these two attributes

13 187 StudentInformation operations studentName studentIDNumber collegeAttended collegeGradePointAvg StudentInformation operations studentName studentIDNumber CollegeAttended operations collegeAttended collegeGradePointAvg 1 0,m (original model) (revised model) Susan McIntyre Bill Martz Maria Carey Grossmont C.C. Point Loma NY Univ. Golden Gate Georgia State U of San Diego collegeAttended gradePointAvg studentName studentIDNumber

14 188 Operations (aka: methods, services, behavior) An OPERATION is a procedure that an object can perform. HealthClubMember Class Objects attributes firstName lastName etc... operations joinClub payFees monitorWorkout etc... “I do it myself” An object’s “motto”:

15 189 Relationships A RELATIONSHIP is what a class or an object knows about another class or object. 4 Generalization[-Specialization] (Superclass/Subclass) Inheritance Ex: Person - FacultyPerson, StudentPerson, Staff... Ex: ModesOfTravel - Airplane, Train, Auto, Cycle, Boat... 4 [Object] Associations FacultyInformation - CourseInformation StudentInformation - CourseInformation 4 [Object] Aggregations & Composition (Whole-Part) Assembly - Parts Group - Members Container - Contents T h r e e T y p e s

16 190 Relationships 1) show relationships 2) enforce integrity 3) help produce results Removal of a course should also remove students that are in the course but not student information. Removal of a student should also remove students that are in courses but not course information. Removal of a student in a course should not affect either course or student information. 1 0,m UniversityCourse StudentInCourse StudentInformation 1 0,m Exist to: In this example:

17 191 Messages A MESSAGE is a signal from one object to another that requests the receiving object to carry out one of its operations. Three parts to a Message: 1. The name of the receiver object 2. The operation to carry out 3. Any parameters the operation may require to fulfill its duties Message: getFrozenYogurt operation: getFrozenYogurt($$) “The operation is the message.”

18 192 VCR Example VCR Class Definition VCR Object Universal Remote Control T.V. Object Play Message

19 193 Persistence PERSISTENCE is the equivalent of more permanent, long-term data storage. State STATE represents the condition of an object at a specific moment in time. Time Account Balance 6:00pm $2,500 6:05pm $2,200 (something changed its state)

20 194 Getting Started!

21 195 GETTING STARTED with the CLASS DIAGRAM OBJECTS! (CLASSES) n Features? n Data? n User Behavior?

22 196 UML Class Diagram Notation Member memberNumber firstName lastName telephone address city etc... checkOutVideo checkInVideo buyItem etc... attributes operations { { Expanded view of a Class into its three sections: Top: Class Name Middle: attributes Bottom: operations Class

23 197 Playing Card Illustration of Class Symbol Deck of 52 Playing Cards... card #1 card #2 card #3 card #4 card #52 Class Object #1 Object #2 Object #3 Object #n

24 198 STRATEGIES for FINDING OBJECTS (Classes) n Wirfs-Brock Noun Phrase n Conglomeration of others: Look for tangible things Consider roles played Identify incidents/interactions which are often transaction-like Find any specifications (table-like) Other…

25 199 n Wirfs-Brock Noun Phrase (also Wilkerson, Wiener) Circle or underline nouns and noun phrases that occur in the requirements document(s); these become candidate classes (objects) Put candidate classes on a separate list Challenge each one; look for synonyms Examples: The system will keep track of membership information The system will manage inventory The system will facilitate the selling of bicycles

26 200 INFORMATION SYSTEMS OBJECTIVES GENERAL OBJECTIVES: A. Provide Just-in-Time (JIT) training B. The systems we implement must be friendly and easy to learn and use C. The systems we implement must give considerations to security issues SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Provide an automated system to assist with customer sales/rental check-outs Provide and maintain an automated membership database a. provide current (up to date) membership information on demand b. capability to add, change, and delete (remove) membership info Provide membership information reports such as (not limited to): a. least used memberships b. most used memberships c. delinquent memberships (both money owing and outstanding rentals) Provide and maintain an inventory database for both sales and rental items a. provide current (up to date) inventory information on demand b. capability to add, change, and delete (remove) inventory information (sales and rental) Provide inventory information reports such as (not limited to): a. least popular rentals b. most popular rentals c. delinquent tape rentals outstanding d. products “on order” (purchasing report) for sale and for rent items Provide Sales Reports such as (not limited to): a. sales for a time period (day, days, week, weeks, month, etc.) by product code b. rentals for a time period (same as above) F i n d i n g O b j e c t s

27 201 Security Issue Automated System Customer Sales/Rental Check-out Membership Database Membership Information Membership Information Report Inventory Database Sales And Rental Item Inventory Information Inventory Information Report Sales Report Candidate List of Classes WIRFS-BROCK NOUN PHRASE STRATEGY

28 202 n Look for tangible things people, places, things n Consider roles played student, faculty, clerk, manager, salesperson, race car driver, etc... n Identify incidents/interactions which are often transaction-like sales, purchases, reservations, etc... n Find any specifications (table-like) state tables, tax rate tables, zipcode table, shipping region table, etc... Other Strategies To Find Objects

29 203 CHALLENGE CLASSES/OBJECTS BASED ON: n Needed remembrance (persistence) n No Attributes n No Operations n Only one Object n Avoid derived (computed) results

30 204 (CRC = Class-Responsibility-Collaboration) 4x6 Card Class Name Responsibilities (attributes and operations) Collaborations (relationships) Order orderNumber orderDate check if items in stock determine price check for valid payment dispatch to delivery address etc... Order Line Customer etc... BECK & CUNNINGHAM’s CRC STRATEGY (low-fidelity/tech way of documenting classes)

31 205 Candidate List of Classes - Pass One Members Customers Movies Reports Concessions Sales Games Inventory VCR Rentals Movie Rental Employees Automated System Hardware Software Back-up System Bonus Plan P.O.S. Terminal Clothing Transaction Marketing Popcorn Prices Physical Environment Scheduling Location Accounting Advertising Overhead Database Payroll Video Store Information System

32 206 List of Classes – Final Pass RentalTransaction Member Employee StoreLocation Supplier Purchase Order Purchase Order Line Item SaleRentalLineItem Note: * denotes an Abstract Class (no Objects) Inventory * Video Game ConcessionItem VCR Transaction * SaleTransaction SaleItem* RentalItem* Video Store Information System

33 207 Video Store Classes showing Attributes - Part 1 of 3 MembermemberNumber memberName memberAddress memberCity memberState memberZipCode memberPhone creditCardNumber creditCardExpireDate depositAmount VideobarCodeNumber description qtyOnOrder price cost taxCode timesRented dueDate memberNumber quantitySold qtyOnHand ClassAttributes

34 208 Game(same as Video) ConcessionItembarCodeNumber description qtyOnOrder price cost taxCode quantitySold qtyOnHand VCRbarCodeNumber description qtyOnOrder price cost taxCode timesRented dueDate memberNumber SalesTransactiontransactionNumber employeeNumber transactionDate transactionTime barCodeNumber price salesTax quantitySold ClassAttributes Video Store Classes showing Attributes - Part 2 of 3

35 209 RentalTransactiontransactionNumber employeeNumber transactionDate transactionTime barCodeNumber price salesTax memberNumber EmployeeemployeeNumber employeeName employeePhone positionCode StoreLocationstoreNumber address city state zipcode telephone VendorvendorNumber vendorName vendorAddress vendorCity vendorState vendorZipCode vendorPhone vendorFaxNumber PurchaseOrderpurchaseOrderNumber purchaseOrderDate purchaseOrderDueDate purchaseOrderCancelDate barCodeNumber quantityOrdered vendorNumber itemCost ClassAttributes Video Store Classes showing Attributes - Part 3 of 3

36 210 Video Store Attribute Data Dictionary (partial) AttributeClassDefinition/Rules barCodeNumberInventoryUp to 12 characters TransactionUp to 12 characters creditCardExpireDate MemberMM/YY (month, year) creditCardNumberMemberUp to 19 characters costInventoryrange: 0 to depositAmountMembermin: $25; max: $200 descriptionInventory40 characters employeeNumberTransaction6 digits memberAddressMember30 characters (no P.O. Box) memberCityMember30 characters memberNameMember30 characters etc.....

37 211 Inventory Video Store – UML Class Diagram SaleItem RentalItem Video Game ConcessionItem VCR Transaction Employee StoreLocation SaleTransaction RentalTransaction Suplier Member PurchaseOrder SaleRentalLineItem PurchaseOrderLineItem 1 0..* * 1..* * * 1 0..* 1

38 212 Video Store Future Enhancements List - Final Pass 1. Open-ended memberships (indefinite; ie: no cancellations) with C.C. or $50 deposit (P) 2. Establish Bonus Point System for rentals (ie: rent 9 get one rental free, etc.) (E) 3. Handle special orders for videos (E) 4. Ability to reserve a movie ahead of time (E) 5. Automatic billing to credit card at end of month for month's charges (E) 6. Establish a membership DEBIT card (E) 7. Allow a monthly "tab" to be paid at the end of the month (see #5) (E) 8. No physical security devices on videos (P) 9. System will not include Payroll system, Accts. Payable, or Financial systems such as General Ledger and Income Statements (P) 10. The system will not keep information on non-member customer sales (P) 11. Game inventory can be for sale or rent (but only one of these at a time) (P) 12. The system will NOT include any work shift scheduling of employees (P) 13. The Video Store will rent VCRs 14. Payment for Rental transactions will be at time of transaction (not when item returned) NOTE: (P) = Policy decision (E) = Potential Future Enhancement

39 213 QUITTING TIME


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