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Object-Oriented SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Review. Name & describe one Information Systems Development Methodology (there are at least four)

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Presentation on theme: "Object-Oriented SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Review. Name & describe one Information Systems Development Methodology (there are at least four)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Object-Oriented SYSTEMS ANALYSIS Review

2 Name & describe one Information Systems Development Methodology (there are at least four)

3 1. What is abstraction? 2. How does it contribute to software development?

4 Abstraction A mental ability that permits people to view real-world problem domains with varying degrees of detail depending on the current context of the problem. Helps people to think about what they are doing Functional and Data abstraction

5 1. What is encapsulation? 2. How does it contribute to software development?

6 Encapsulation (Information Hiding) A technique in which data are packaged together with their corresponding procedures. cake Ingredients Directions 2 eggs 4 cups flour 1 cup milk 1 cup sugar etc Pre-heat oven to 350; Put milk, eggs, and sugar in 2 quart mixing bowl... 4 In Object-Oriented Technology the “package” is called an OBJECT 4 The interface to each object is defined in such a way as to reveal as little as possible about its inner workings 4 Encapsulation allows [software] changes to be reliably made with limited effort [Gannon, Hamlet, & Mills, 1987] One cake please!

7 1. What is inheritance? 2. How does it contribute to software development?

8 Inheritance A mechanism for expressing similarity between things thus simplifying their definition. looks behavior attitudes etc... Person StudentFaculty Staff Inheritance

9 Explain the purpose of Message Communication in object-oriented software development.

10 Message Communication OBJECT Objects communicate via messages

11 1. What is polymorphism? 2. How does it contribute to software development?

12 Polymorphism (“many forms”) 4 The ability to hide different implementations behind a common interface. 4 The ability for two or more objects to respond to the same request, each in its own way. u H O = water, ice, steam (liquid, solid, vapor) u Eating 2 versus Door #1 Door #2 Door #3 Door #1 #2 #3

13 Polymorphism 4 Two examples PRINT TEXT object GRAPH object IMAGE object Object #1 PO object Account object Department object Object #2 Object #3 Add = add a line item to the PO = increase $ Amount Balance = hire a new employee

14 u Objects and their characteristics u Wholes and Parts u Groups (Classes) and Members * Common methods of organization Classification Theory*

15 Common Methods of Organization People are accustomed to thinking in terms of... color price weight engine options... Objects & Attributes number of doors number of wheels number of windows number of lights number of bolt type 1 number of bolt type 2 etc.... Wholes and Parts Groups & Members VANS: light utility utility passenger etc...

16 Reuse Varying Degrees of Reuse: complete or sharing copy, purchase or cloning partial or adjusting none The ability to reuse objects Software: “Chips” Components Controls Models

17 What are the three (3) classic software development problems?

18 VVVVVVVVVVVV Colorado River North Rim of the Grand Canyon South Rim of the Grand Canyon Classic Software Development Problem #1: Multiple Models Data Models Function Models SystemBehavior

19 VVVVVVVVVVVV Colorado River North Rim of the Grand Canyon South Rim of the Grand Canyon Classic Software Development Problem #2: Model Transformation Design Models Analysis Models

20 Classic Software Development Problem #3: Maintaining Source Code Begin “Caller” Program Init x,y,z... Open (files/database) Read... Compute... DO “Callee” with x,y,z Update (files/database) Close (files/database) End Main Program Procedure Callee Parameters x,y,z Compute... End Procedure End Program Spaghetti? Who wrote this code?

21 SOLUTION Colorado River Object Technology INTEGRATED MODEL(S) (function, data, behavior) (analysis, design and implementation) ROUND-TRIP ENGINEERING

22 H Define an OBJECT H Define a Class and Class with Objects H Describe a Gen-Spec Class Connection H Describe a Whole-Part Obj. Connection H Describe Object Connection Constraints Object-Oriented ANALYSIS Review

23 H Define an Attribute H Name & Describe one Attribute type H What is an Event? H What is a Service? H Name & Describe a “Basic” Service H Describe a “Problem Domain” Service H Name & Describe one tool used to express the details of a Service Object-Oriented ANALYSIS Review

24 Coad’s Object Model Components Problem DomainHuman Interaction Data ManagementSystem Interaction Information System These four (4) components help promote the notion of Separation of Concerns in software development.

25 Coad’s Object Model Notation class-with-objects model component class

26 Coad’s Object Model Notation Member memberNumber firstName lastName telephone address city etc... checkOutVideo checkInVideo buyItem etc... attributes services { { Expanded view of a class or class-with-objects into its three sections: top: Class Name middle: Attributes bottom: Services Class Name

27 Coad’s Object Model Notation object connection n n generalization-specialization connection whole-part object connection n-n 1

28 Inventory StoreLocation Employee Member SalesTransaction RentalTransaction Vendor PurchaseOrder Transaction ConcessionItem Video Game VCR SaleItem RentalItem 1-n 1 1 n 0-1 n n 1 n n POLineItem n SaleRentalLineItem 1 1-n 1 Video Store - Problem Domain (PD) Object Model Note: For simplification purposes, the attribute and service sections of classes and class-with-objects have been omitted from the figure.

29 PD Object Model with Attributes & Services Inventory ConcessionItem Video Game SaleItem RentalItem 1-n barCodeNumber description qtyOnHand price cost taxCode orderInventory inquireAboutAvailableInvento ry addNewInventoryItem changeInventoryItemInformati on delete/RemoveInventoryItem updateQuantity-On-Order quantitySold qtyOnHand updateQuantitySold updateInventoryQty-On-Hand timesRented dueDate memberNumber updateRentalInformation VCR 1 of 3

30 Member SalesTransaction RentalTransaction Transaction 1 1 n 0-1 n n 1 PD Object Model with Attributes & Services transactionNumber employeeNumber transactionDate transactionTime payForTransaction quantitySold purchaseForSaleItems memberNumber rentAnItem checking-inRentalItem memberNumber creditCardNumber memberName creditCardExpireDate memeberAddress depositAmount memberCity overdueAmount memberState memberZipcode memberPhone acquireMembership verifyMembership updateCreditCardInformation updateMembershipInformation cancelMembership updateOverdueAmount determineIfDelinquent Employee employeeNumber employeeName employeePhone positionCode updateEmployeeInformation 1 SaleRentalLineItem transactionNumber barCodeNumber price salesTax 1-n 11 2 of 3

31 PD Object Model with Attributes & Services StoreLocation Vendor PurchaseOrder 1 n 1 storeNumber address city state zipcode telephone provideStoreInformation vendorNumber vendorName vendorAddress vendorCity vendorState vendorZipcode vendorPhone vendorFaxNumber addNewVendorInformation changeVendorInformation deleteVendor provideVendorInformation purchaseOrderNumber purchaseOrderDate purchaseOrderDueDate purchaseOrderCancelDate vendorNumber createNewPurchaseOrder deleteExistingPurchaseOrder 1-n POLineItem purchaseOrderNumber barCodeNumber quantityOrdered itemCost 1 1-n 3 of 3

32 End of O-O Systems Analysis Review QUITTING TIME

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