Presentation on theme: "To view the slide show: Whenever you see a red or green punctuation mark, the slide show stops at that point. Click your mouse to continue the slide show."— Presentation transcript:
To view the slide show: Whenever you see a red or green punctuation mark, the slide show stops at that point. Click your mouse to continue the slide show. (Do it now)
Your “Do Now” Activity Think about the way in which you have organized your classroom (or plan to do so). What factors influenced the “look” of your room? (placement of furniture, items, rugs, etc.) What “decorations” are posted on the walls, windows, closet doors, & other & otherverticalsurfaces? McIntyre, BehaviorAdvisor.com
3 How do environmental conditions vary within the same room? The temperature may vary. Some kids have a better view of the board or presentation area. Extraneous noise levels may be different in different parts of the room. Some students have better lighting. Those near the lighting. Those near the windows receive ever-changing windows receive ever-changing levels of light on their desk tops. levels of light on their desk tops.
4 Things to consider when arranging your classroom. Our goals are to: –Promote attention & minimize distractions –Provide structure, access, & orderliness –Make efficient use of limited space. Things that influence our decisions include: 1.# of students 2.Size and shape of room 3.Placement of non-moveable items 4.Available furniture 5.Types of lessons, learning formats & activities that will ensue. Let’s look more closely at these aspects…
5 Class Size & On-Task Behavior Students in U.K., Hong Kong, & U.S. off-task more in larger classes. Larger the class, the more teachers lectured & the less students focused on what supposed to be doing. Low-achieving students especially affected by class size; nearly twice as likely to be disengaged in a class of 30 compared to 15. While previous class-size studies found a threshold for positive effects (e.g., Had to be under 17 to have a major impact), this study found that any reductions of class size were beneficial to student attentiveness. “Students Observed to Be ‘On Task’ Less as Class Size Grows” by Debra Viadero in Education Week, Apr. 2, 2008 (Vol. 27, # 31, p. 9)
6 The Size of the Room Affects: Instructional style and methods. How so? –Planning for movement (or lack thereof) –Methods used (cooperative learning, moving between stations & learning centers, response pages taped to wall, etc.) & Interpersonal interaction & Interpersonal interaction –Rats & humans tend to react negatively to cramped spaces. Architects allocate space figured primarily upon: Funds available Anticipated time of occupancy: Shelters (Fallout, Tornado) 6 sq. ft. per person (short-term) County jails: 48 sq. ft. per person –School room: 30 sq. ft. per pupil (30’ x 30’ = 900 sq. ft.) Then DIVIDE by 30 students. Consider also: –Furnishings cut down on open space –The unusable space near any doors (class entry, bathroom, coat room) –The teacher hogging a large unfurnished space near the front.
7 The REAL Space-Per-Student Ratio 18 square feet for 6-7 hours of occupancy The size of 2 phone booths. Typical special ed room.
8 Influences That We Can’t Avoid What comes with the room that we must “work around”, so to speak? –Shape of the room (changed by non-moveable objects) –Doors, closets & windows –Bulletin, chalk, & white boards –Height of the ceiling (How bring it down?) –Internet & cable outlets –Drinking fountains & sinks –Bathroom. Despite having no control over the size and configuration of the room, assure that: - There are no large unoccupied spaces (Gallagher) -The teacher can move to offer assistance to everyone. -Students can move without disturbing others.
10 Types of lessons, learning formats & activities If enough space, arrange for the various types of groupings & learning formats that you’ll be utilizing. Among your learning format options are…? –Full class presentations by the teacher –Individual or small group practice or application of instruction –Reading groups –Panel discussion / Roleplaying –Learning centers. (NPR routines for centers demo)
image: IRIS Center11 Demonstration Seating How do the two configurations compare? Benefits of each?.
image: IRIS center12 Row seating: What type of instruction occurs in these rooms ?
image: IRIS Center13 Cluster Seating Top Row: Why the angle alignment to board? Why 6 kids at one cluster? How do you decide which pupils sit together? Bottom Row: What’s the benefit of the 1 st one in comparison with the 2nd?
14 Rows versus Clusters: Benefits of Each? Wong recommends rows on the 1 st day. Why? –Prevent cliques from forming; assert in-charge image Rows: What does research tell us about which pupils receive the most teacher attention & assistance? –Front seats & down the middle aisles Given open choice on seating selection, where do kids with behavior challenges tend to sit? –Back (right corner as face teacher).
15 Research on Rows Vs. Clusters Axelrod (1979) switched students between row and cluster seating. In which configuration were the students on task more? 62% time on task in cluster 82% of time on task in rows. 2 nd trial 63% of time on task in cluster 83% of time on task in rows Yes, but… (Which other aspects or outcomes should also be considered?)
16 Rows versus Tables (for EBD with LD) Wheldall & Lam (1987, Acad. Ther.) changed seating of three classes every two weeks (2 times in each condition). Which condition produced more on- task behavior? Tables: 35% Rows: 70%. Less disruptive behavior while in rows. Teachers uttered more positive commentary (and reduced negative feedback) while students were seated in rows.
17 Placement of our desk is important too ent.” ent.”
18 Old-school, but an “efficient classroom”. Why? What sort of instruction/activities probably occur? The teacher planned for 28 students. Now s/he is told that there will be 33 learners at the start of the term. How can s/he fit 5 more pupils? (image: IRIS Center)
19 4 Guidelines for Arranging Furnishings 1. Separate “high traffic” areas. Areas such as…? –Teacher’s desk –Computer stations –Group work areas –Pencil sharpeners –Trash cans –Water fountains –Pick up & drop off locations for books & papers
20 2. Before the students arrive, stand in different parts of the room to be sure that you’ll be able to see all of your students. What sorts of things might interfere with a clear field of vision to all students from all places? What is the best way to position yourself when assisting a student? yourself when assisting a student? Which way do you face and why?
21 3. Be sure that all of your students can see you as you instruct. Do so by…? Sitting in their seats and slouching down. 4. Keep frequently used material easily accessible. Examples of frequently used materials & how you keep them accessible?
22 Common Modifications How would you change the physical environment (or student position inside of it) for students whose challenges are: (Teams) Visual –Closer or farther from board / presenter –Away from windows, lamp on desk Motoric –Wider aisles for crutches & wheelchairs –Seat removed to create a spot for a wheelchair Distractibility –Carrel / Booth with no decorations –Teacher attire… –What should be made more vivid and stimulating?
23 An Inefficient Classroom Design… But why ? Iris Center image
24 In your teams, read the page describing 4 students: Robert, Latisha, Helen, and Paulo. Devise a seating arrangement that meets their needs & addresses their described characteristics.
25 Developed by: Tom McIntyre Dept Special Ed Hunter College, NYC Thomas.firstname.lastname@example.org BehaviorAdvisor.com & BehaviorDrs.com