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INTEGRATING COMMON CORE LITERACY STANDARDS WITH NGSSS FOR THE ARTS MAKING LEARNING MEANINGFUL AND ACCESSIBLE FOR ALL STUDENTS BCI Florida Department of.

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1 INTEGRATING COMMON CORE LITERACY STANDARDS WITH NGSSS FOR THE ARTS MAKING LEARNING MEANINGFUL AND ACCESSIBLE FOR ALL STUDENTS BCI Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction John J. LeTellier, Jr. Fine Arts Content Specialist

2 Overview of Presentation 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Common Core and the Arts  Curriculum Mapping in Layers  A model that can reduce the number of critical areas that become the focus of the course, while providing students with a set of very specific goals to master throughout the course.  Learning goals promote student ownership of their own achievement, teacher use of individual student data to guide instruction and ensures all students have learning gains.  Mini-Art Lesson (Learning Objective) within the context of Learning Goals and their Learning Progression Scales

3 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Common Core

4 1. What are the Common Core Standards and how are they integrated into NGSSS Arts courses? Common Core Outline 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction 2. Common Core English Language Arts (ELA) and Literacy Standards 3. Roadmap and Labeling 4. Emphasis on Literacy 5.Mathematics

5 1. What are the Common Core Standards and how are they integrated into NGSSS Arts courses? 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  The Common Core standards were created through a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Common Core Standards are not national standards, however they have been adopted by 45 states and 3 territories according to the Common Core website  The Common Core addresses what a student should know by the end of each grade level or banded level (i.e. 9/10) in both mathematics and English Language Arts.  Common Core Anchor standards address what a student should know in English Language Arts by the end of 12 th grade.  Common Core standards do not replace the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for the Arts. Rather, they are embedded within NGSSS arts courses and supplement arts standards. They do however replace NGSSS Mathematics and NGSSS English Language Arts Standards.  CCSS and other NGSSS are embedded within each course description. These standards/benchmarks must be addressed in the course along with the included NGSSS arts benchmarks. Common Core standards that have been placed in NGSSS Arts courses are ones that are a natural fit for the arts.

6 Common Core Key Points 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  There are no Common Core Arts Standards. Rather Common Core standards are embedded within each Arts course.  Collaboration and integration is essential in the implementation of Common Core  All faculty in different content areas should collaborate with each other to reinforce each other’s content areas where applicable (Arts Integration).  Scope and Sequence or Curriculum Maps for different content areas – Faculty should work together to align content.  Students should be working towards increased critical thinking skills as well as the ability to regularly perform self evaluation.  Collaboration should travel both ways – between Arts teachers and other content area teachers.  College and Career Ready – Common Core Standards were developed in collaboration with teachers, school administrators, and experts to provide a clear and consistent framework to prepare our children for college and the workforce.

7 2. Common Core ELA and Literacy Standards 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  10 Anchor Standards in Reading and Writing both for ELA and Literacy standards  6 Anchor Standards in Speaking and Listening, and Language  Literacy standards  K-5 – Because all subjects in Grades K-5 are often taught by the same teacher, the ELA and Literacy standards are the same. On the following chart this is indicated by the vertical arrows →→ in grades K-5 for reading (blue background) and K-5 for writing (green background)  6-12 – Has a separate section for Literacy Standards

8 1. WHAT ARE THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS AND HOW ARE THEY INTEGRATED INTO NGSSS ARTS COURSES? 3. ROADMAP AND LABELING ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND LITERACY STANDARDS READING StrandWRITING Strand SPEAKING & LISTENING Strand LANGUAGE Strand 10 Anchor Standards for College and Career Readiness 10 Anchor Standards for College and Career Readiness 6 Anchor Standards for CCR ELA Standards K-12 Literacy Standards 6-12 ELA Standards K-12 Literacy Standards 6-12 Literary Text Hist. / S.S. Sci. / Tech Subj. Inform. Text 1 K K K K K Found- ational Skills K → → → → → → → → →→ →→ → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → →→ →→ → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → →→ →→ → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → →→ →→ → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → →→ →→ → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → →→ →→ → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → → → → → → →→ → → → → → RF RLRI RH WWHSTSLL RST

9 Embedded English Language Arts vs. Literacy Standards 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  English Language Arts Standards  ELA Standards are embedded in some courses - most notably theatre and K-5 arts courses.  Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (6 th -12 th grade only)  In 6 th – 12 th grade most embedded Common Core Standards will come from this section.

10 ELA Domain Labels 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  RF – Reading Foundational  RL – Reading Literature  RI – Reading Informational Text  RH – Reading History and Social Studies  RST – Reading Science and Technical Subjects  W – Writing  WHST – Writing Historical, Science and Technical Subjects  SL – Speaking and Listening  L - Language

11 Tomato or Tomato… 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction NGSSS BenchmarksCommon Core Standards The lowest level of granularity in the NGSSS is the Benchmark. In the Common Core the lowest level of granularity is the Standard.

12 3. Roadmap and Labeling 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Common Core Example Standard: 11 th and 12 th grade Language Arts Common Core Cluster 3 Reading Literature Standard 7

13 Where to find the Standards in the Common Core Document 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Main Website -  ELA Standards - ards.pdf ards.pdf  Pg. 38 of the ELA standards has the above example standard (LACC.1112.R.3.7). Under Grades students (number 7), the standard says, “Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)  LACC.1112.RL.3.7 is Florida’s way of labeling this standard.

14 Pg. 38 Common Core ELA (LACC.1112.RL.3.7) 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)

15 Direct Page Numbers in Common Core Document 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Page 9: K-5 Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects.  Page 34: 6-12 Standards for English Language Arts  Page 59: Title page for Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects  Page 61: 6-12 Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies  Page 62: 6-12 Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects  Page 64: 6-12 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

16 4. Emphasis on Literacy Skills 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Literacy is defined as both the ability to read and write to a competent level and knowledge of or competence in a subject or area of activity. Therefore emphasis upon literacy impacts upon the arts two-fold: 1. Students should be able to read and write competently in their grade level for any course including the arts. 2. Students should be competent in the skills required for each arts course.

17 Mathematics 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Applicable Math standards and practices are currently being evaluated for inclusion.

18 Mathematical Practices 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  MACC.K12.MPMathematical Practices  MACC.K12.MP.1Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.  MACC.K12.MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively.  MACC.K12.MP.3Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.  MACC.K12.MP.4Model with Mathematics.  MACC.K12.MP.5Use appropriate tools strategically.  MACC.K12.MP.6Attend to precision.  MACC.K12.MP.7Look for and make use of structure.  MACC.K12.MP.8Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

19 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum Mapping

20 What is a Curriculum Map?  A Curriculum Map is an academic plan which provides direction for the integration of Common Core with the Arts. It creates an overall plan of instruction for the year.  It should be created before any Lesson Objectives (Lesson Plans). 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction

21 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction To facilitate the understanding of a Curriculum Map using learning goals and progression scales, let’s take a look at an Arts Integration mini-lesson for Music Technology and Sound Engineering I – Course # within the context of a Curriculum Map.

22 Remember Tomato or Tomato or…Tomato! 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Focused UnitsGrouping Remember the tomato vs. tomato slide? In looking at curriculum mapping, there are some words that you might normally call something else. For example, what we are calling, “chunking” you might call, “grouping”. Also, the following is just one way in which you might approach curriculum mapping. Chunking

23 Course Requirements and Standards Curriculum Mapping in Layers “Chunks” or Big Ideas (Create Learning Goals) Mapping Learning Goals Progression Scales for Major Learning Goals Progress Monitoring/Assessments 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction

24 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction In mapping, always begin with the course requirements defined by the standards in the course description. You can access these using CPALMS: Course Requirements and Standards

25 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Common Core Standards

26 Additional Proposed Standards 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Below are additional Common Core standards including Mathematical Practices for this course that will likely be included during the next State Board Course Description Adoption Cycle. * In addition, LACC.1112.WHST.3.9 is proposed to be changed to LACC.910.WHST.3.9 for this course.

27 What are Learning Goals? 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Next create learning goals. These can last for weeks, months or in the case of a few the entire year.  Then “chunk” together the benchmarks and standards that are needed to accomplish each learning goal individually. This includes Arts benchmarks, Common Core standards and other NGSSS associated with the course. “Chunks” or Big Ideas (Creation of Learning Goals)

28 What are Learning Goals? 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Learning goals, “Define what students should know and be able to do”.  Learning goals are those overarching concepts that need to be taught within a school year.  Learning goals target key learning at the unit or “big picture” level. Learning goals are not the same thing as daily or even weekly objectives. Goals most often represent a larger focus while objectives represent smaller, more specific learning that leads to the goal or goals.

29 Example Learning Goal 1 with Chunked Benchmarks and Standards 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Learning Goal 1- Students will understand through study and application, the basic acoustical principles that affect sound production. MU.912.C.1.1 MU.912.C.3.1 MU.912.S.3.4 MU.912.H.3.1 LACC.910.SL.1.1 LACC.910.SL.1.2 LACC.910.SL.2.4 LACC.910.RST.2.4 LACC.910.RST.3.7 LACC.910.WHST.3.9 MACC.912.A-CED.1 MACC.K12.MP.5 MACC.K12.MP.6 MACC.K12.MP.7 DA.912.S.2.1 Music Technology and Sound Engineering LG 1 - Chunk

30 MU.912.C.1.1LACC.910.SL.1.1 MU.912.C.2.2LACC.910.SL.1.2 MU.912.C.3.1LACC.910.RST.2.4 MU.912.S.1.8LACC.910.RST.3.7 MU.912.S.3.4LACC.910.RST.3.9 MU.912.H.2.4MACC.912.A-CED.1 MU.912.F.1.2MACC.K12.MP.5 DA.912.S.2.1MACC.K12.MP.6 MACC.K12.MP.7 Learning Goal 2 – Through the analysis of informational texts, various audio recordings and empirical study, students will examine and understand the role of signal processors and appropriately use them in both the audio tracking and mixing chain. Example Learning Goal 2 with Chunked Benchmarks and Standards 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction LG-2 Chunk Music Technology and Sound Engineering ELA Standards Algebra Cluster (Creating Equations) Mathematical Practices Common Core

31 Learning Goal 2 Vs. 2a 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  In the next slide, notice how the benchmarks and standards for 2a are the same as they are for learning goal 2. This is because those standards and benchmarks fit both goals. That will not always be the case. Remember, Benchmarks and Standards should always be chunked together according to the overarching concept of what you are teaching.

32 Example Learning Goal 2a with Chunked Benchmarks and Standards 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Learning Goal 2a – Through the analysis of informational texts, various audio recordings and empirical study, students will examine and understand the role of equalization and appropriately apply it in both the audio tracking and mixing chain. Music Technology and Sound Engineering MU.912.C.1.1LACC.910.SL.1.1 MU.912.C.2.2LACC.910.SL.1.2 MU.912.C.3.1LACC.910.RST.2.4 MU.912.S.1.8LACC.910.RST.3.7 MU.912.S.3.4LACC.910.RST.3.9 MU.912.H.2.4MACC.912.A-CED.1 MU.912.F.1.2MACC.K12.MP.5 DA.912.S.2.1MACC.K12.MP.6 MACC.K12.MP.7 LG-2a Chunk MU.912.C.1.1LACC.910.SL.1.1 MU.912.C.2.2LACC.910.SL.1.2 MU.912.C.3.1LACC.910.RST.2.4 MU.912.S.1.8LACC.910.RST.3.7 MU.912.S.3.4LACC.910.RST.3.9 MU.912.H.2.4MACC.912.A-CED.1 MU.912.F.1.2MACC.K12.MP.5 DA.912.S.2.1MACC.K12.MP.6 MACC.K12.MP.7 ELA Standards Algebra Cluster (Creating Equations) Mathematical Practices Common Core

33 How To Map Learning Goals  After creating all of the learning goals for an individual course, you will need to create a plan (map) to cover the content.  When mapping the major learning goals be attentive to the order in which new concepts or skills should be introduced.  Estimate the amount of time that will be required for students to explore the big ideas in depth and master the concepts and skills.  The next slide shows a sample year-long map containing six learning goals for Music Technology and Sound Engineering I. An actual map for this course would contain more learning goals in order to cover all of the required content. 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Mapping Learning Goals

34 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Example Learning Goals Map Across Quarters Quarter 1 Quarter 2Quarter 3Quarter 4 *Learning Goal 2 – Signal Processors Goals can start at the same or different times and even overlap. Goals also will have varying lengths. Learning Goal 1 – Basic Acoustical Principles Learning Goal 2a Equalization Learning Goal 2b Dynamic Range (Compression, Expansion, Limiting and Gating) *Learning Goal 2 Notice that there are learning goals within learning goals in this particular case. Learning Goal 2c Reverb and Delay Learning Goal 2d Special Effects

35 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  After creating our learning goals and map, we then need to create progression scales.  Scales provide a clear learning progression of what a student should understand or be able to do. The terms scale or rubric relate to the same concept: an explicit set of criteria used for assessing progress toward a learning goal. The progress points built into the scale are appropriately sequenced, usually based on a logical order or progression or ascending levels of difficulty. The points in the scale must directly support the learning goal.  The value of the scale is that students will evaluate their own progress. Progression Scales for Major Learning Goals

36 Example Progression Scale for Learning Goal 2a 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction 4.0 Students understand the role of equalization and are able to apply it appropriately to individual tracks and full mixes as well as use it in creative and non-traditional fashions. 2.0 Students understand the basic principles of equalization and are able to appropriately accentuate or de-emphasize frequencies for individual instruments and understand the use of a graphic equalizer. 1.0Students have limited understanding of equalization principles. 0.0 Even with assistance, students are unable to understand basic equalization principles. 3.0 Students understand and are able to appropriately apply different types of equalization as needed in the audio tracking and mixing chain to create a cohesive and tonally balanced mix. Notice how 3.0 is identical to what is being asked with Learning Goal 2a. The learning goal is your target!

37 So…  Begin with the course descriptions.  Create learning goals and “Chunk” standards and benchmarks into critical areas or big ideas.  Make sure to integrate appropriate standards that logically fit across content areas.  Map out your learning goals for the duration of the course. 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction

38 Lesson Objectives 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  We’ve covered how to create learning goals, chunking standards/benchmarks together, creating scales and mapping out learning goals.  Next we will see what it looks like to create a lesson objective.  We will start by explaining lesson objectives and then create an actual lesson that fits into one of our example learning goals.

39 Lesson Objectives (continued) 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Each learning goal contains lesson objectives (lesson plans) that will meet that specific goal.  Lesson objectives are more specific than learning goals.  Lesson objectives can be individual lessons or a set of lessons.  They are measurable and again should include what a student should know and be able to do.  As an important note – Lesson objectives should be created before working on a learning goal. However, not all of the lesson objectives need to be designed alongside the Curriculum Map at one time.

40 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction The following slide shows 4 possible lesson objectives that can help students reach learning goal 2a’s target level. One of the objectives will be used for the mini-lesson. These are just examples. More objectives obviously would need to be created in order to be more comprehensive and include such topics as phasing and shelving.

41 Lesson Objective 1 – Through study and empirical evidence, students will learn what equalization is and how it affects the tone of individual instruments for tracking and mixing purposes. Through this study along with the Carnegie Hall frequency chart, students will create their own chart that shows ideal frequencies to boost or cut for individual instruments within a mix. Lesson Objective 2 – Students will learn the difference between graphic and parametric equalizers including the process of adjusting the “Q” for each parametric band in relationship to the gain through the study of informational text and the collection of empirical evidence. Lesson Objective 3 - Students will apply their knowledge of how each instrument fits within the broad frequency spectrum and learn how best to approach equalization to create “space” for each instrument within a mix. They then will manipulate the equalization frequencies in a pre-recorded eight track session to achieve tonal balance in the song (i.e. accentuating and de-emphasizing the appropriate frequencies for the bass guitar, electric piano and kick drum to achieve clarity and tonal balance in the bass spectrum) and create a finished two-track mix. Students will then compare and critique their final mixes with their classmates. Lesson Objective 4 – Students will compare their final two-track mixes to a professionally recorded two- track mix and make necessary adjustments to match the tonal balance of the professional mix. They then will discuss the methods they used and the outcomes with their classmates. Lesson Objective 2 – Students will learn the difference between graphic and parametric equalizers, including the process of adjusting the “Q” for each parametric band in relationship to the gain through the study of informational text and the collection of empirical evidence. Sample Lesson Objectives to meet Learning Goal 2a 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Lesson Objective 2 **Lesson Objective 2 is the actual objective that we will use for our mini-lesson Here is learning goal 2A as a reminder so you can see how the lesson objective we are using matches the goal: Through the analysis of informational texts, various audio recordings and empirical study, students will examine and understand the role of equalization and appropriately apply it in both the audio tracking and mixing chain.

42 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction ~Music and Math Integration Lesson~ Parametric and Graphic EQ Objective: To learn the difference between parametric and graphic equalizers through the study of informational text and the collection of empirical evidence, and to understand the process of adjusting the “Q” of each parametric band in relationship to the gain.

43 Benchmarks, Standards and Math Practices Utilized for Lesson Objective 2 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Music Benchmarks MU.912.C.1.1Apply listening strategies to promote appreciation and understanding of unfamiliar musical works. MU.912.C.2.2Evaluate performance quality in recorded and/or live performances. MU.912.C.3.1Make critical evaluations, based on exemplary models, of the quality and effectiveness of performances and apply the criteria to personal development in music. MU.912.S.1.8Record, mix, and edit a recorded performance. MU.912.S.3.4Analyze and describe the effect of rehearsal sessions and/or strategies on refinement of skills and techniques. MU.912.H.2.4Examine the effects of developing technology on composition, performance, and acquisition of music. MU.912.F.1.2Incorporate or adapt new, emerging, or previously unfamiliar technology to create an innovative composition, music project, or related product. Common Core LACC.910.SL.1.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher- led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. LACC.910.RST.2.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain- specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9–10 texts and topics. LACC.910.WHST.3.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. MACC.912.A-CED.1Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. MACC.K12.MP.5Use appropriate tools strategically. MACC.K12.MP.6Attend to precision. MACC.K12.MP.7Look for and make use of structure. * Note that not all of the benchmarks/standards for learning goal 2a are present. For each objective, use only the benchmarks/standards that pertain to that objective. However, all benchmarks/standards should be addressed at some point within the teaching of the learning goal.

44 What is Equalization? 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Quoted from pg. 366 of the 5 th edition of Modern Recording Techniques by David Miles Huber: “The audio equalizer is a device or circuit that allows a recording, mix or audio engineer to control the relative amplitude of various frequencies within the audible bandwidth. Put another way, it lets you exercise tonal control over the harmonic or timbral content of a recorded sound.”

45 What is Equalization (continued) 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Equalization is more commonly addressed in the industry as “EQ”.  EQ is an important part of both tracking and mixing. With the help of EQ an engineer can tweak individual tracks as well as complete mixes to achieve a desired tonal balance.  EQ can also be used in non-traditional ways as an effect.  The frequencies on an EQ literally correspond to frequencies like that on a piano. So for instance, if you were to boost 440 Hz with a narrow Q on an EQ you would be accentuating the A above middle C.

46 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Graphic Equalization

47 Graphic Equalizer 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  Graphic Equalizers are categorized by the amount of bands and the octave arrangement that they use. For instance you might hear a graphic equalizer being called a 30 band 1/3 octave equalizer. In this case there would be 30 control sliders that are literally spaced apart by 1/3 of an octave each (think piano octave).  Each band is a type of “filter”. That is it “filters” or modifies its own frequency range. By boosting or cutting the filter, the sound is outputted in a changed way.

48 Picture of a graphic equalizer 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Ashly GQX03102 stereo graphic EQ

49 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Parametric Equalization

50 Parametric EQ and Controls Explained 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  A parametric equalizer is an equalizer which contains frequency controls that are both sweepable and that allow for the user to adjust the steepness or broadness of an EQ curve.  Controls  Gain – The amount of boost or cut that will be applied to strengthen or weaken the energy for the specified frequency range.  Frequency – The frequency that is to be selected.  Q (Quality Factor or Quality of Resonance) – This affects the bandwidth (The width of frequencies that will be affected along with the chosen center frequency).

51 Massenberg Parametric EQ 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  George Massenberg invented the revolutionary Parametric EQ in 1972

52 Close up of Parametric EQ 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Gain Frequency (Outer ring to be used with the inner ring of markings) Q (Concentric knob to be used with outer ring of markings)

53 Finding Q – A little bit of important EQ Math! 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction It is important to be able to determine what frequencies you are affecting with your use of the Q setting. The equation is both easy and useful. Here is the formula we use to find Q: Q= f3/(f2-f1) whereas f2 is the upper frequency, f1 is the lower frequency, and f3 is the center between f1 and f2. Example:  Find the extreme lower and extreme upper frequency that you wish to affect (in this case let’s use 60 Hz and 120 Hz).  Subtract the lower frequency from the upper frequency 120 Hz - 60 Hz=60  Divide the centre frequency (90hz) by the result (i.e. 90 Hz/60 Hz= 1.5)  So in this example you would set the EQ frequency to 90 Hz and use a Q of 1.5 to affect 60 Hz Hz with the gain.

54 Q in Practice 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  In the following example, EQ is used to accentuate the attack of the kick drum. Click on the links below and listen to how different Q settings affect the sound. With a partner try to determine what frequency is being boosted, how many dB of boost is occurring and the Q that is being used.  Kick No EQ Kick No EQ  Kick Lower Gain Wider Q Answer: (+9db at 3.3 kHz, Q of 1.3) Kick Lower Gain Wider Q  Kick High Gain Narrow Q Answer: (+15db at 3.3 kHz, Q of 9) Kick High Gain Narrow Q  In both examples, the attack of the kick is accentuated. Notice however with a narrower Q (9) it is necessary to boast the gain higher in order to achieve the desired result. Also, there is a substantial difference in the outcome. The very narrow Q results in a more “pinging” sound, whereas the wider Q results in a fuller sound. This is because with a broaded Q we of course are raising more of the frequency spectrum surrounding 3.3 kHz.

55 Graphic and Parametric EQ Exercise 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  With a partner open the two-track stereo mix that you brought into class in your DAW editor. Load up both a parametric and graphic EQ into the plug-in slots for the stereo track.  Using your graphic EQ, increase the gain by +3dB for each of the following frequencies, first separately and then together (60 Hz, 200 Hz, 315 Hz, 800 Hz, 3 kHz, 6.5 kHz and 12 kHz).  Now do the same with the parametric EQ. Note any differences in your journal.  Next, note what settings on the parametric EQ are necessary to match the sound of the graphic EQ.  Finally, accentuate each frequency by 6dB, once with a wide Q and once with a narrow Q.  Write a summary of your findings. Make a note of positive and negative tonal changes that you notice with each frequency. What happens with the sound if you sweep the Q back and forth? How might you use a narrow Q differently from a wide Q when mixing? Make a note of which instruments/vocals are accentuated as you experiment and what changes you notice in the sound. Use words like, snap, sizzle, sibilance, thump, etc.

56 For the Algebra Teacher… 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction  If this lesson were coordinated with the algebra teacher, multiple concepts could be covered and reinforced by both the algebra and music teacher.  In an algebra class, more in-depth equations for bandwidth, cutoff frequencies, converting bandwidth to Q and converting Q to bandwidth could be studied as real-life practical applications. Creating equations, rearranging formulas, powers, roots and logarithms are all subjects that could be covered.

57 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction Finally, Progress Monitoring involves the creation of formative and summative assessments to monitor students’ progress towards attaining mastery of each learning goal. Progress Monitoring/Assessments

58 John J. LeTellier, Jr. – Fine Arts Content Specialist 1/9/13Florida Department of Education Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction


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