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A New Vision for American Science Education Modifying Teaching Practices.

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1 A New Vision for American Science Education Modifying Teaching Practices

2 “The framework is designed to help realize a vision for education in the sciences and engineering in which students, over multiple years of school, actively engage in scientific and engineering practices and apply crosscutting concepts to deepen their understanding of the core ideas in these fields.” (pg 10) “…learning about science and engineering involves integration of the knowledge of scientific explanations (i.e., content knowledge) and the practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design. Thus the framework seeks to illustrate how knowledge and practice must be intertwined in designing learning experiences in K–12 science education.” (pg 11) JoAnn Miller 20122

3 “One rationale for organizing content around core ideas comes from studies comparing experts and novices in any field. Experts understand the core principles and theoretical constructs of their field, and they use them to make sense of new information or tackle novel problems. Novices, in contrast, tend to hold disconnected and even contradictory bits of knowledge as isolated facts and struggle to find a way to organize and integrate them. The assumption, then, is that helping students learn the core ideas through engaging in scientific and engineering practices will enable them to become less like novices and more like experts.” (pg 25) JoAnn Miller 20123

4 “The framework is designed to help realize a vision for education in the sciences and engineering in which students, over multiple years of school, actively engage in scientific and engineering practices and apply crosscutting concepts to deepen their understanding of the core ideas in these fields. The learning experiences provided for students should engage them with fundamental questions about the world and with how scientists have investigated and found answers to those questions. Throughout grades K-12, students should have the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations and engineering design projects related to the disciplinary core ideas.” (pgs 8-9) JoAnn Miller 20124

5 One of the Three Dimensions of the Framework 1.Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering) 2.Developing and using models 3.Planning and carrying out investigations 4.Analyzing and interpreting data 5.Using mathematics and computational thinking 6.Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering) 7.Engaging in argument from evidence 8.Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information JoAnn Miller 20125

6 You can look for existing inquiry-based activities =3&museumid=-1&supplierid=-1&pamphletcategoryid=-1&mediaid=- 1&statusid=-1&categoryid=60&gradeid=-1&KEYWORD= =3&museumid=-1&supplierid=-1&pamphletcategoryid=-1&mediaid=- 1&statusid=-1&categoryid=60&gradeid=-1&KEYWORD= You can modify your existing lessons to become inquiry-based JoAnn Miller 20126

7 Inquiry is knowledge gained through investigation Characteristics of an inquiry lesson: Encourage students to ask questions. Do not provide students with too many answers or too much information. Avoid evaluation of student ideas. Allow students time to test out ideas. Encourage student interaction. Provide students with resources and freedom Inquiry lessons may be introduced by: Demonstrations Discrepant events Hands-on activities Invitations to inquiry Adapted from: Martin, D.J. (1997). Elementary science methods: A constructivist approach. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. JoAnn Miller 20127

8 Rational Approach: Generalizations are made through questioning and reinforcement Teacher poses a question or problem. Teacher manipulates materials. Students, through questioning are led to a potential answer. Experimental Approach: Students test the validity of a statement Teacher poses a problem. Students suggest variables and ways to test for the effect of each variable. Teacher and students plan one or more experiments. (Controls and operational definition are agreed upon.) Students conduct the experiment(s), collect and record data, and form conclusions. Discovery Approach: Student-centered direct exploration of science concepts. Learning Cycle: Generalizations are made through exploration Teacher provides materials for student exploration. Students manipulate materials in guided exploration. The teacher facilitates closure by gaining group consensus. Guided Discovery/Inquiry: Students are guided in exploration Teacher poses a question for students to explore and provides the materials. Students freely explore how to approach the problem. Students test hypotheses and come to tentative conclusions. Teacher facilitates closure by gaining group consensus. Pure Discovery: Students are given total freedom in exploration Teacher provides materials for student exploration. Teacher provides guidelines only in terms of safety and equipment care. Students explore at their own rate. Adapted from: Martin, D.J. (1997). Elementary science methods: A constructivist approach. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. JoAnn Miller 20128

9 The basis for most inquiry-based learning is either inspiring a question in a student’s mind or providing them with a question to answer or a problem to solve Just because it is inquiry-based does not mean it is unstructured – teacher becomes facilitator of thinking direction Teacher needs to manage Misconceptions that arise during inquiry learning and re-direct thinking Paths of thinking that lead to misconceptions that may seem logical Time-on-task Students can lose focus if the inquiry is too broad or lacks initial direction Teacher may need to provide direction on skills necessary to answer questions – i.e. lab skills or generalized procedures Group dynamics – be aware of student-pairings that are not productive JoAnn Miller 20129

10 Identify the intended learning outcomes based on core concepts in science standards Develop a question which will lead to the intended learning outcomes Find/produce an activity that bridges the question and the learning outcome You need to know how they will find the answer. Even though they are “discovering” the information, you should be pretty confident about the path of inquiry and the misconceptions so you can facilitate direction to correct answer JoAnn Miller

11 Students will understand concentrations of solutions and the solvent/solute components of a solution Supports the following standards and was not part of earlier years’ standards HS.PS-CR Chemical Reactions: a. Analyze and interpret data to support claims that energy of molecular collisions and the concentration of the reacting particles affect the rate at which a reaction occurs. HS.LS-MEOE Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems: a. Construct a model to support explanations of the process of photosynthesis by which light energy is converted to stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Models may include diagrams and chemical equations. The focus should be on the flow of matter and energy through plants.] [Assessment Boundary: Limited to the inputs and outputs of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis, not the specific biochemical steps involved.] gas exchange, i.e. carbon dioxide diffusing into plant leaves, dependent on concentration gradients inside/outside leaves JoAnn Miller

12 How can I have students “discover” concentration through inquiry and activity? Need to have them making decisions which can be tested or verified Need them to be invested in a design solution – collaboration, brainstorming, time to try several ideas Need to provide support that facilitates trying multiple ideas the first idea does not have to be the correct one there are or may be multiple paths to get to the correct understanding JoAnn Miller

13 Consider time element Inquiry activities can take more time Different groups/students discover information at different rates – have extension activity/work ready Consider your roll You will need to move between groups to provide support – keep eyes and ears open Consider supplies and equipment Students will try multiple ideas – need extra supplies Students may come up with novel ideas requiring equipment you haven’t prepared Consider giving them a list of equipment available JoAnn Miller

14 Creation of a Solution Gradient JoAnn Miller

15 How will you know if your lesson provides a path for students to meet the lesson objective? JoAnn Miller

16 JoAnn Miller


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