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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART C 7 The Nervous System

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protection of the Central Nervous System Scalp and skin Skull and vertebral column Meninges Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Blood-brain barrier

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protection of the Central Nervous System Figure 7.17a

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meninges Dura mater Double-layered external covering Periosteumattached to inner surface of the skull Meningeal layerouter covering of the brain Folds inward in several areas

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meninges Arachnoid layer Middle layer Web-like Pia mater Internal layer Clings to the surface of the brain

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meninges Figure 7.17b

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Similar to blood plasma composition Formed by the choroid plexus Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.18a–b Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid Figure 7.18c

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hydrocephalus in a Newborn Hydrocephalus CSF accumulates and exerts pressure on the brain if not allowed to drain Figure 7.19

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood-Brain Barrier Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body Excludes many potentially harmful substances Useless as a barrier against some substances Fats and fat soluble molecules Respiratory gases Alcohol Nicotine Anesthesia

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Traumatic Brain Injuries Concussion Slight brain injury No permanent brain damage Contusion Nervous tissue destruction occurs Nervous tissue does not regenerate Cerebral edema Swelling from the inflammatory response May compress and kill brain tissue

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Commonly called a stroke The result of a ruptured blood vessel supplying a region of the brain Brain tissue supplied with oxygen from that blood source dies Loss of some functions or death may result

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Alzheimers Disease Progressive degenerative brain disease Mostly seen in the elderly, but may begin in middle age Structural changes in the brain include abnormal protein deposits and twisted fibers within neurons Victims experience memory loss, irritability, confusion, and ultimately, hallucinations and death

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Extends from the foramen magnum of the skull to the first or second lumbar vertebra 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord Cauda equina is a collection of spinal nerves at the inferior end

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Figure 7.20 (1 of 2)

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Figure 7.20 (2 of 2)

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Internal gray matter is mostly cell bodies Dorsal (posterior) horns Anterior (ventral) horns Gray matter surrounds the central canal Central canal is filled with cerebrospinal fluid Exterior white materconduction tracts Dorsal, lateral, ventral columns

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Figure 7.21

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Spinal Cord Anatomy Meninges cover the spinal cord Spinal nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae Dorsal root Associated with the dorsal root ganglia collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system Ventral root Contains axons

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pathways Between Brain and Spinal Cord Figure 7.22

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system Nerve = bundle of neuron fibers Neuron fibers are bundled by connective tissue

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Structure of a Nerve Endoneurium surrounds each fiber Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by perineurium Fascicles are bound together by epineurium

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Structure of a Nerve Figure 7.23

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Classification of Nerves Mixed nerves Both sensory and motor fibers Sensory (afferent) nerves Carry impulses toward the CNS Motor (efferent) nerves Carry impulses away from the CNS

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves 12 pairs of nerves that mostly serve the head and neck Only the pair of vagus nerves extend to thoracic and abdominal cavities Most are mixed nerves, but three are sensory only

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves I Olfactory nervesensory for smell II Optic nervesensory for vision III Oculomotor nervemotor fibers to eye muscles IV Trochlearmotor fiber to eye muscles

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves V Trigeminal nervesensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles VI Abducens nervemotor fibers to eye muscles VII Facial nervesensory for taste; motor fibers to the face VIII Vestibulocochlear nervesensory for balance and hearing

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Cranial Nerves IX Glossopharyngeal nervesensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharynx X Vagus nervessensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera XI Accessory nervemotor fibers to neck and upper back XII Hypoglossal nervemotor fibers to tongue

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (1 of 4)

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (2 of 4)

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (3 of 4)

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Cranial Nerves Table 7.1 (4 of 4)

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Distribution of Cranial Nerves Figure 7.24


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