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José Ángel Brandariz García University of A Coruña, Spain

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Presentation on theme: "José Ángel Brandariz García University of A Coruña, Spain"— Presentation transcript:

1 José Ángel Brandariz García University of A Coruña, Spain

2 ◦ Crimmigration theory (Stumpf, 2006) ◦ Governing through crime (Simon, 2007) ◦ Criminal Law of the Enemy (Jakobs, 1997; 2004) ◦ Homo Sacer, State of Exception (Agamben, 1995; 2003) ◦ Governmentality Studies (Foucault, 2004; Rose, 1999; Dean, 2010) ◦ Spanish Crimmigration policies  Sovereign reading (Cancio Meliá, 2005; Iglesias Skulj, 2011; Navarro Cardoso, 2006)  Governmental reading (Calavita, 2005; Brandariz García, 2011)

3 ◦ Spain: very prominent phenomenon of migrants’ arrival  Foreign population multiplied by 6 in 10 years (0.92 million million )  Government of phenomenon through sovereign measures (i.e., centres of detention, administrative removals, penal deportations)  However: Less sovereign reading outcomes these policies  Outcome: Less exclusion than differential inclusion

4 ◦ Reviewing Literature context of crisis ◦ Spanish Government: innovations field Crimmigration policies ◦ Government’s main perspective: currently migrants are no longer necessary – Organizing return  No major effects of this policy  Return migration solely certain nationals (Bolivia-born individuals: 16.1% drop; Brazil-born individuals: 14.2% drop between 01/2009 and 01/2012)  Total amount foreign population remained constant since beginning of Great Recession (5.64 million -12% total population- 01/2009; 5.71 million -12.1% total population- 01/2012)

5 Source: National Statistics Institute (INE), Spain Year (1 st January) Foreign Pop. (Total/million) Foreign Pop. (%/Total Pop.) Year-on-Year Evolution (Total amount) %+ 23.3% %+ 48.4% %+ 44.3% %+ 34.7% %+ 13.8% %+ 22.9% %+ 11.0% %+ 9.0% %+ 16.5% %+ 7.2% %+ 1.7% %+ 0.1% %- 0.7%

6 ◦ Sovereign, exclusive measures/Measures bound to economic aims/management of efficiency ◦ 1 st Innovation: (Re-)launch of racist raids main Spanish cities (since 2008)  Spanish Government: Denial – Madrid’s data  Previous Socialist Government → Police Order No. 1/2010: arrest of migrants –irregular and regular alike- who do not carry residence permit  Raids policy understood expression revival sovereign rationale of control context of the crisis (aimed to: legitimize institutional governing employment shortages, ensure social cohesion, prevent emergence xenophobia)  However: Incorporation neo-liberal elements of control - Governmental organization of police profiling  Monthly quota of arrested irregular migrants – Moroccan nationals priority (Madrid, 2008)  Raids policy not only expression of sovereign control - It incorporates neo- liberal concern for efficiency

7 ◦ 2 nd Innovation: Deportation Policy  Evolution: a) remarkable drop administrative removals; b) almost total replacement of administrative removals by criminal deportations  : Vast majority of deportations → administrative removals  Since 2008: Significant drop administrative removals Recession context (2008: 5052 → 2011: 2244)  Since 2008: gradual replacement of administrative removals by criminal deportations (2008: ,4% total- → 2011: ,2%-)  New centre-right Government; main goals: a) Decrease amount of administrative removals; b) Reserve detention centres for penal deportations

8 Source: Home Office, Spain YearExpulsions (Total) Year-on-year Evolution % % % % % % % % %

9 Source: Home Office, Spain YearAdministrative removalsYear-on-year Evolution % % %

10 Source: Home Office, Spain YearCriminal deportations Year-on-year Evolution Percentage of total expulsions % %57.2% %71.6% %80.2%

11  The complex hybridization of neo-liberal and sovereign devices in the field of Crimmigration policies ◦ Analyzing double evolution of deportation policy  Sovereign reading: Spanish Government is aiming to strengthen legitimacy, by announcing deportation policy now focused on delinquent migrants  Inaccurate/incomplete reading – Interpretation evolution deportation policy: neo-liberal perspective  Evolution shows concern limits of public budgets – Amount of administrative removals has to drop because there are not enough resources  Policy assumption: most appropriate to enforce penal deportations → criminal ground more solid - Evolution shows concern improving efficient use scarce resources/actuarial mode of risk management  Nevertheless: Evolution of deportation policy not consistent with raids policy

12 ◦ Actuarial/economic rationalization of control policies not simple task – Overcoming sovereign trends domain of security policies → slow and controversial process ◦ Literature claims field of control policies not only guided neo-liberal guidelines, but also neoconservative trends, occasionally coming into conflict  Recent Literature on governmentality highlighted neo-liberal government through conduct of freedom complemented sovereign rationales of power  Recent Literature qualified 1990s texts on governmentality: emphasized exclusively centrality of government through freedom ◦ Foucault (2007) pointed out that different technologies of power do not replace each other, but come into conflict in the same historical time ◦ Spanish experience field of Crimmigration policies demonstrates may coexist devices of societies of security/sovereign societies/neo-disciplinary dynamics


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