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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Craig E. Nelson Consultant Engineer Comparison of Two Formulations for Analysis of Systems Containing Permanent Magnets the Vector Potential and the Scalar Potential Formulations A Finite Element Analysis using flexPDE

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com The Nature of the Problem to be Examined: There are several useful formulation for analysis of magnetostatic problems. Each has a place where it is most efficient or, based on extent knowledge of boundary or source conditions, must be used. The most commonly used formulation utilizes the vector potential formulation. A less common, but sometimes useful formulation is the scalar potential formulation. At one point, I was curious if these two formulations gave substantially similar results. The following analysis examines this question for the case of a cylindrical shaped permanent magnet with uniform magnetization in the vertical direction

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com The Vector Potential Formulation The partial differential equation to be solved is: B = mu * H = Curl(A) Where A is the magnetic vector potential, B is the magnetic flux density, H is the magnetic field intensity and mu is the magnetic permeability of a region in space. To complete the formulation, A must be defined on the solution domain boundaries and source values for H must be defined within the domain. For very general problems containing magnetic sub domains, H is defined as: H = B/mu0 – M where M is the magnetization in magnetic regions and mu0 is the magnetic permeability of vacuum. In order to apply finite element analysis with this formulation, knowledge of the magnetization and magnetic permeability of all the solution sub domain regions as a function of B, is required. This can be problematic when the starting point for analysis happens to be knowledge of the magnetization and permeability as a function of H.

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com The Scalar Potential Formulation The partial differential equation to be solved is: div ( Hs - mu0*grad(Phi) + M ) = 0 Where Phi is the magnetic scalar potential, Hs is a source of magnetic field intensity, M is the magnetization in magnetic regions and mu0 is the magnetic permeability of vacuum. To complete the formulation, Phi must be defined on the solution domain boundaries and values for Hs and M must be defined within the domain. H is defined as: Hr = - dr(phi) Hz = - dz(phi)H = vector(Hr,Hz) where r and z are the radial and axial directions B is derived by means of: B = mu0*(H + M) In order to apply finite element analysis with this formulation, knowledge of the magnetization and magnetic permeability of all the solution sub domain regions as a function of H, is required. This can be problematic when the starting point for analysis happens to be knowledge of the magnetization and permeability as a function of B.

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Geometry for the Finite Element Model Solution

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Line of radial Symmetry Permanent Magnet with uniform magnetization in the vertical direction A and Phi = 0 Solution Domain

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Line of radial Symmetry Permanent Magnet with uniform magnetization in the vertical direction A and Phi = 0 Solution Domain

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Solution Plots

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Vector Potential Formulation – B FieldScalar Potential Formulation – B Field

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Vector Potential Formulation – H FieldScalar Potential Formulation – H Field

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Vector Potential Formulation - (H + M) FieldScalar Potential Formulation - (H + M) Field

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Vector Potential Formulation – B in z directionScalar Potential Formulation – B in z direction

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 Craigmail @ aol.com Summary and Conclusions Two formulations for solving magnetostatic problems where permanent magnets are the source of magnetic fields have been tested with a simple cylindrical magnet problem. The numerical solution results are essentially identical The two problem formulations each have their area of applicability. The vector potential formulation, though more general than the scalar potential method, is difficult or impossible to use in those cases where the magnetization and the magnetic permeabilities are known as a function of magnetic field intensity (H). The scalar potential formulation, though somewhat limited when compared to the vector potential formulation, may be used in those cases where the magnetization and the magnetic permeabilities are known as a function of magnetic field intensity (H).

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Nelson Research, Inc. 2142 – N. 88 th St. Seattle, WA. 98103 USA 206-498-9447 aol.com Analysis of an “Air Cathode” for a Micro Fuel Cell a.

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