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Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Positive and Negative Externalities.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Positive and Negative Externalities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Positive and Negative Externalities

2 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Positive and Negative Externalities The effects of a decision by consumers and producers that has an impact on a third party –Positive Externalities – beneficial effects on third parties –Negative Externalities – costs incurred by third parties

3 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Costs and benefits in production: External costs in production – where MSC = MSB – MPC –e.g. air and water pollution, congestion, housing development on green belt areas, destruction of hedgerows and wildlife, noise, pollution, anti-social behaviour, crime External benefits in production – where MSC < MPC –e.g. human resource development, research and development in industry Positive and Negative Externalities

4 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Costs and benefits in consumption: External costs in consumption – where MSB < MPB –e.g. passive smoking, litter, noise, anti-social behaviour External benefits in consumption – where MSB > MPB –e.g. preventative health care – vaccinations, public transport, attractive gardens, bathing regularly! Positive and Negative Externalities

5 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed External costs – socially efficient output is less than current output External benefits – socially efficient output is greater than current output Socially efficient output is where MSC + MPC = MSB + MPB Positive and Negative Externalities

6 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Measuring positive and negative externalities: Consumer surplus Producer surplus Willingness to pay Net Present Values Risk values – probability of an event x monetary value Cost-Benefit Analysis Positive and Negative Externalities

7 Copyright 2006 – Biz/ed Weighing up the costs and benefits Benefits from production of chemicals/pharmaceuticals and energy Costs of generating these products/services Copyright: Karoly Feher and Drew Broadley, stock.xchng Positive and Negative Externalities


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