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BASIC HUMAN NEEDS
BASIC HUMAN NEEDS INTRODUCTION :- NEEDS: a lack of something required or desired. *Needs motivate us to act! BASIC NEEDS :- are the absolute needs that every human being needs and other needs cannot imagined without fulfillment of these needs. Fulfillment of basic needs is essential for life and is the motivating force behind human behavior. Every individual has basic human needs – physical,emotional,social and intellectual.
Characteristics of basic needs 1 ） Basic needs are approximately same for all. 2 ） The importance of each need is different for each person. 3 ） All the basic needs are interconnected and interactive.
THEORY RELATED TO BASIC NEEDS —Maslow’s hierarchy theory of Basic needs for Human Being
Maslow’s theory (a) Basic content (b) Basis for need’s hierarchy (c) General rules (d) Significance to nursing
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs MASLOW ‘S hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by ABRAHAM MASLOW in 1943 paper A theory of human motivation. Maslow’ s theory was fully expressed In his 1954 book MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY. The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contains what Maslow called ‘’deficiency needs or’’ d needs’’ which includes esteem,love,security & physical needs. If these deficiency needs are not met,the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious. Maslow’ s theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire for secondary needs.
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS
The hierarchy has five levels: Physiological Needs: oxygen, water, protein, salt, sugar, calcium and other minerals and vitamins, shelter and sleep etc. Safety Needs: security, stability, protection from physical and emotional harm Belongingness & Love Needs: affection, belonging, acceptance, friendship, community Esteem Needs: Internal ones are need for self-respect, confidence, autonomy, and achievement. External ones are need for respect of others, status, fame, glory, recognition and attention. Maslow feels these are the roots to many, if not most of our psychological problems. Self-actualization: doing that which maximizes one’s potential and fulfills one’s innate aspirations. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Basic NeedElements Self- Actualization Meeting Personal Potential--(Basically satisfied people who we expect the fullest (and healthiest) creativity) EsteemDesire for strength, achievement, adequacy, confidence, freedom, independence, and the Desire for reputation, prestige, recognition, attention, importance, appreciation Social/LoveLove (both giving and receiving, separate from sex), Affection, Belonging, Friendship SafetyPhysical, Emotional Security, Routine and Rhythm, Fairness, Justice PhysiologicalHunger, Thirst, Sleep, Comfort
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS - related to body necessary for life; when unmet, these needs lead to death Food Air Water Oxygen Clothing Sleep Sex Protection from extreme temperatures Elimination Sensory needs Motor needs Physiological Needs
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Physiological needs are the very basic and strongest needs such as air, water, food, sleep, etc. When these are not satisfied we may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. These feelings motivate us to alleviate them as soon as possible to establish homeostasis. Once they are alleviated, we may think about other things. We need these for basic survival.
SAFETY/SECURITY Needs Personal security :- includes The need to be free from anxiety and fear The need to be secure in the environment. i,e. stability The need for order and routine Financial security Health and well being security Safety Needs
2. Safety Needs/ Security Needs When all physiological needs are satisfied & no longer dominating our thoughts & behaviors, we progress to safety needs, that is need for security. We often have little awareness of these, except in times of emergency & disorganization in social structure (war time, terrorist acts, domestic violence, natural disasters). People often experience post traumatic disorder in absence of physical security. Absence of economic safety due to economic crisis manifest themselves in saving accounts, insurance policies, accommodations and many more like this.
LOVE AND BELONGINGNESS NEEDS/ SOCIAL NEEDS Social acceptance, friendship, to be loved Need to belong, to relate to others Sexuality -the ability to give and receive love and affection -reproductive capabilities Social Needs
3. Belongingness & Love needs When safety & physiological needs are met, we desire, to be loved by others & to belong. Humans have desire to belong to family, groups,clubs, work groups, religious groups etc. We need to feel loved by others, accepted by others and seek to overcome the feelings of loneliness and alienation. We need to be needed. This involves both giving & receiving love, affection & the sense of belonging (family, friends, social groups). These needs often overcome the Physiological and Safety needs depending on the strength of peer pressure. This need is especially strong in childhood.
RECOGNITION AND ESTEEM NEEDS Esteem Needs Feeling important and worthwhile – includes respect, approval, appreciation We engage in activities that bring achievement, success, and recognition We gain self-confidence and begin to direct our actions toward becoming what we WANT to be.
Esteem Needs After the first 3 classes of needs are met, the needs for esteem can become dominant. Esteem presents normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. There are two types of esteem needs. First is self-esteem which results from competence or mastery of a task. Second, there's the attention and recognition that comes from others. People who have all of their lower needs satisfied, often acquire “status symbols” because doing so raises their level of esteem. Maslow noted two versions of Esteem needs –lower one and higher one. Lower one includes needs for respect of others,need for status, recognition,fame, prestige, and attention.
Contd…………… Higher one includes self-respects, need for strength, competency, mastery, selfconfidence, independence and freedom. Higher one depends more on Competence won through experience. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident & valuable as a person in the world. Deprivation of these needs can lead to frustration, inferiority complex,weakness, helplessness and worthless.
SELF ACTUALIZATION Achieve full potential Fulfillment Self-realization; obtaining our full potential; becoming confident, eager to express our beliefs, and willing to reach out to others to help them.
Maslow’s Hierarchy: Self-actualization The need for self-actualization is "the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.“ People who have everything can maximize their potential. They can seek knowledge, peace, aesthetic experiences, self-fulfillment, oneness with God, etc.
Need for Self-Actualization When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then & only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. Maslow describes self-actualization as a person's need to be & do that which the person was "born to do." "A musician must make music, an artist must paint, & a poet must write." These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness (person feels edgy, tense, lacking something, in short, restless. ) The person must be true to his or her own nature, be what you are meant to be.
On Self-Actualization Maslow believed that very few people reach the state of self-actualization. Although we all have the need to move toward the goal of reaching our full potential, other needs may get in the way.
FEATURES OF SELF ACTUALIZED PEOPLE 1. They tend to accept themselves for what they are. They freely admit their weaknesses, but do make attempts to improve. 2. They don’t worry excessively over the mistakes they have made, but instead focus on improving. 3. They respect & feel good about themselves. However, this self love is healthy & not narcissistic. 4. They are less restricted by cultural norms than the average person. They feel free to express their desires, even if contrary to the popular view.
5. These people are creative. 6. They are innovative & creative at solving problems. 7. They have relatively few friends, but the friendships are deep & rewarding. 8. They have a great sense of humor, poking fun at the human condition. 9. These people have frequent peak experiences, in which time & place are transcended, anxieties are lost, & a unity of self with the universe is obtained (birth of a child, marriage, deciding to go to school).
Basis for need’s hierarchy Importance of needs Sequence of need’s appearance
To meet our human needs We usually learn what works by trial-and-error Direct methods v. Indirect methods Stress reactions Challenges and responsibilities
DIRECT METHODS Hard work Setting realistic goals Cooperating with others Evaluating effectively
INDIRECT METHODS Suppression Projection Denial Rationalization Compensation *Note: These are unhealthy when used too often, but sometimes allows us to cope!
When defense mechanisms are inadequate, stress reactions develop: Chronic complaining and demanding behavior Agitation with manipulative behavior Restlessness Sleeplessness Depression-be alert for potential suicide Withdrawal
Misconceptions about Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1. Maslow himself agreed that his 5-level need hierarchy oversimplifies the relationship between needs & behavior. 2. The order of needs makes sense for most of us, though there may be some notable exceptions (e.g., some people need to satisfy their needs for self-esteem & respect before they can enter a love relationship). 3. We may so desire fulfilling a need that we sacrifice others below it (e.g., “The starving actor/artist”).
The Need Hierarchy Approach Weaknesses of Maslow’s theory Five levels of need are not always present. Ordering or importance of needs is not always the same. Cultural differences in categories and hierarchies.
Significance to nursing a) To identify client’s unmet needs b) To realize and understand client’s words and behaviors c)To predict client’s unspoken needs e) To put client’s nursing problems in adequate order d) To collect client’s data comprehensively