Presentation on theme: "Training & Development Needs Analysis Training. Overview n Models of Learning –Reinforcement Theories –Cybernetic & Information Theories –Cognitive Theories."— Presentation transcript:
Overview n Models of Learning –Reinforcement Theories –Cybernetic & Information Theories –Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving –Experiential Learning Cycle n The ‘learner’ and the organisation’ : transfer n Model of Training Needs Analysis (TNA) : individual and organisational levels of analysis n Special training and development needs : diversity management
Learning ‘Training and developmental activities are designed to bring about changes in behaviour’ Arnold, Cooper & Robertson (1998) Learning is ‘a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience’ Bass & Vaughan (1966) n How do we learn ? Psychological theories...
Reinforcement Theories n Pavlov (1904) ‘Classical Conditioning’ - making dogs dribble n Skinner (1965) ‘Operant Conditioning’ - teaching pigeons ‘ping-pong’ n Watson & Rayner (1920) ‘little Albert’ n Nord (1969) application of Skinner’s ‘positive reinforcement’ principles to org./mgmt practices n N.B. Conditioning by punishment ?
Cybernetic & Information Theories How information is received and monitored (‘’human thermostats’’ - Stammers & Patrick, 1975) Skills Analysis - what ‘cues’ or ‘stimuli’ an experienced worker is being guided by (e.g. typist : ‘hunt & peck’)
Cognitive Theories & Problem Solving n Reflect the way in which we learn to recognise and define problems or experiment to find solutions –trial & error –deductive reasoning –information seeking n Kohler (1973) Theory of ‘Insight Learning’ or ‘Discovery Learning’ (e.g. Chimps, bananas and sticks or Archimedes ‘Eureka!!’)
Gagné’s Hierarchy of Learning n 8 major varieties of learning, hierarchically related, each building on earlier, more simple abilities (which therefore act as prerequisites for more complex abilities) –Signal Learning (classical conditioning) –Stimulus-Response Learning (operant conditioning) –Chaining (connecting sequence of 2+ S-R units) –Verbal Association (learning ‘verbal’ chains) –Discrimination Learning (different responses to similar stimuli) –Concept Learning (common response to different stimuli in gp) –Rule Learning (a chain of 2 or more concepts I.e. if ‘A’ then ‘B’) –Problem Solving (recombining old rules into new ones)
Experiential Learning Kolb (1974) : ‘Learning Cycle’ Concrete TestingexperienceObservations implications of& Reflections concepts in new situations Formation of abstract concepts & generalisations Honey & Mumford (1986, 1992) : ‘Learning Styles’ –activist : open-minded, actively involved, bored with implementation –reflector : ponder experiences, cautious, ‘back-seat’, ‘bigger picture’ –theorist : adapt & integrate observations, vertical, logical, hierarchical –pragmatist : try out new ideas to see if they work in practice
The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (I) n Learner Motivation –Otto & Glaser (1970) : taxonomy of motivational factors in learning : achievement motivation, anxiety, approval, curiosity, acquisitiveness n Knowledge of results (feedback) –form of reinforcement –Extrinsic KR –Intrinsic KR –Learning curves & plateau n Attitude formation & change –predispose learners to action –having ‘harmonious attitudes’ (Festinger’s concept of cognitive dissonance, 1957) –group discussion, providing new information
The ‘Learner-Organisation’ Interaction (II) Age –less brain cells, speeded performance declines –short-term memory deteriorates (increased errors in cognitively complex tasks) –Welford (1962) older less able to cope with large amounts of information and –vocab. and comprehension increase (reasoning and numerical ability test scores decreased) –Vernon (1960) rate of decline slowest in originally high scorers. –Stimulation –Education & Training offset decline in abilities
Transfer n ‘Training transfer occurs when new learning is used in new settings beyond those employed for training purposes’ (Arnold, Cooper & Robertson, 1998) n Positive Learning Transfer –‘when learning that has already taken place on one task assists later learning on another’ –vertical positive transfer : one subject acts as a basis for another (e.g. maths to statistics) –lateral positive transfer : occurs when the same type of stimulus requires the same response (e.g. flight simulators) –N.B. ‘On-’ vs ‘Off-the-job’ Training n Negative Transfer –‘when an old learning or past experience can hinder performance on a new task; when the same stimuli requires a different response’ (e.g. driving on right hand side)
Factors that assist Transfer Individual n Understanding of general principles –facilitated by discovery learning; issue of physical and psychological ‘fidelity’ n Overlearning –practising beyond the level of minimum competence n Association –getting the trainee to associate new learning with other, previous, learning. Organisational n Supportive culture ? n Congruent norms/values/attitudes
Goldstein (1986, 1991, 1993) Model of Training Needs Analysis
Stage One : Establishing Organisational Commitment and Support Identify whose co-operation is needed, i.e. management, workers, clients, other stakeholders. ‘Project Parameters’ : rationale of approach(es), time needed, numbers of people involved, admin. (& other) support needed. Glaser & Taylor (1973) –collaborative approach –highly motivated, ‘team-like’ interface –early and active contacts between parties Goldstein (1993) advocates a ‘liaison team’
Stage Two : Organisational Analysis of Training Needs n Central Issue = ‘how well is the organisation doing?’ N.B. Organisation does not have to be underperforming to need development n Importance of the ‘transfer’ climate : system-wide factors that may support/undermine training n Goldstein (1993) : 4 stages of OA –Specify training goals (3 types) –Determine training climate –Identify legal constraints (vertical and horizontal) –Determine resources available
Stage Three : Requirement Analysis Goldstein (1993) : 6 stages n determine target job to be assessed n identify how needs assessment data best collected –interviews, observations, surveys, tests, records, SME’s, focus groups, work samples, etc. n determine who is going to provide necessary info n ascertain key points of contact and their responsibilities n anticipate problems and difficulties n develop a TNA protocol
Stage Four : Needs Assessment Task Analysis n TA for TNA should provide a job specification (KSA’s/competencies required). Training spec. derived from difference between employees’ current and ideal levels n Reid & Barrington (1997) : 3 main TNA TA approaches (task identification & task element analysis) –Comprehensive Approach –Key Task Analysis –Problem-Centred Approach n Task fidelity (physical and psychological) –e.g. stages and ‘key points analysis’, manual skills analysis, job learning analysis, faults analysis, benchmarking, Critical Incidents Technique.
Stage Five : Person Analysis n Who in the organisation needs training n What kind of training is needed n KSA deficits - must have suitable performance criteria –performance appraisal ratings –360-feedback ratings –KSA’s of new recruits –Development Centre ratings –self-assessments
Special Training Needs n Retraining –learning how to learn –the ageing workforce n Managing Diversity –cross-cultural training (increasing globalisation, multi-cultural societies) –Equal Opportunities legislation n Training the Unemployed –long-term unemployed (more than 27 weeks continuously) –causes of long-term unemployment (physical, psychological & environmental factors)