Presentation on theme: "Needs Assessment Another evaluation approach What is a “need” Approaches to assessing needs Examples."— Presentation transcript:
Needs Assessment Another evaluation approach What is a “need” Approaches to assessing needs Examples
“I need a thneed”, the Lorax Like/Dislike, Preference Need vs Want Demand Willingness vs Ability to Pay
Need = difference between what someone wants and what exists Applied mostly to public programs Often in context of resource allocations across target populations or regions Relative needs - indices, priorities
"need" is a value judgement that some group has a problem that can (should) be addressed.
Whose value judgement? normative need - an experts opinion, felt need - client self-assessment, expressed need -(behavior)- use or non-use of services/facilities), comparative need -relative to a reference or peer group.
Kinds of Needs Outcomes not equal expectations (standards) At risk : groups whose conditions put them at greater risk of problems Maintenance needs, e.g alcohol/drug rehab, fitness, health
Steps in Needs Analysis Identify users and uses of the study – why? Describe target population (who?) and service environment Identify Needs – assess relative importance Propose alternatives for meeting needs Evaluate alternatives –Feasibility, effectiveness, costs Communicate results/Implement
Three Models Discrepancy (gap) = desired - existing –Goal setting - what we want –Performance measurement - what is –Discrepancy identification Marketing - determine needs and wants of target markets and assess ways (4P's) of meeting them –Select target markets –Choose competitive position –Develop effective marketing mix Process/Root Causes vs Symptoms
Ex.1: SCORP Approach – recreation needs Measure supply of facilities in a region Measure “Demand” or desired use Difference = Need Forecast Future Supply or Demand to assess future needs Possibly rank needs by priority/importance
Ex 2: NRPA Open Space Standards for Communities 10 acres of parkland per 1000 population 10% of land area in parks $8 operating expense per capita
Problems with Standards Minimums, Maximums or Ideal? Must be revised to fit local situation Origin usually dubious Tend to become performance measures rather than guidelines Often misused
Ex 3. Community Needs Survey or Market Survey Qualitative or Quantitative Attitudes or Behavior Objective or subjective measures Direct or Indirect Approaches –What are your needs? – perceived needs –Measure/observe behavior & compare with a norm