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Macromolecules large (or sometimes very large) organic molecules large (or sometimes very large) organic molecules Organic chemistry – deals with compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules large (or sometimes very large) organic molecules large (or sometimes very large) organic molecules Organic chemistry – deals with compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules large (or sometimes very large) organic molecules large (or sometimes very large) organic molecules Organic chemistry – deals with compounds containing carbon Organic chemistry – deals with compounds containing carbon Polymer – molecule made of three or more sub-units called monomers Polymer – molecule made of three or more sub-units called monomers 4 main categories of macromolecules: 4 main categories of macromolecules: 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids

2 Carbohydrates Sugars, starches, etc. Sugars, starches, etc. Contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are used as fuel and food storage by cells are used as fuel and food storage by cells names commonly end in “ose”, eg. sucrose names commonly end in “ose”, eg. sucrose Milk sugar: ________ose Milk sugar: ________ose lactose lactose Fruit sugar:________ose Fruit sugar:________ose fructose fructose Table sugar: _______ose Table sugar: _______ose sucrose sucrose Blood sugar: _______ose Blood sugar: _______ose glucose glucose Grain sugar: _______ose Grain sugar: _______ose maltose maltose

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5 Sub-unit: single sugar (sometimes called simple sugar or monosaccharide), ex: glucose, fructose Sub-unit: single sugar (sometimes called simple sugar or monosaccharide), ex: glucose, fructose  two single sugars joined together is called a disaccharide, ex: sucrose, maltose, lactose many single sugars joined together is called a polysaccharide, ex: starch, glycogen, cellulose many single sugars joined together is called a polysaccharide, ex: starch, glycogen, cellulose

6 Starch – storage supply for plants Starch – storage supply for plants Glycogen – storage supply for animal (sometimes called animal starch) Glycogen – storage supply for animal (sometimes called animal starch) Cellulose – form plant cell walls, wood and food fiber Cellulose – form plant cell walls, wood and food fiber Dehydration Synthesis – ex: formation of sucrose and water Dehydration Synthesis – ex: formation of sucrose and water Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration Synthesis Glucose + fructose -> sucrose + water Hydrolysis – ex: breakdown of sucrose using water Hydrolysis – ex: breakdown of sucrose using water Hydrolysis Sucrose + water -> glucose + fructose

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8 Lipids Fats, waxes, oils, phospholipids, steroids (e.g. cholesterol) Fats, waxes, oils, phospholipids, steroids (e.g. cholesterol) Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (sometimes phosphorus) Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (sometimes phosphorus) Important word part “lip” Important word part “lip” Are hydrophobic – repel water because they are non- polar molecules Are hydrophobic – repel water because they are non- polar molecules Fats - Energy storage molecules, phospholipids – main components of cell membranes Fats - Energy storage molecules, phospholipids – main components of cell membranes Nerve tissue – high fat content Nerve tissue – high fat content Lipids are commonly derived into vitamins and hormones Lipids are commonly derived into vitamins and hormones

9 Sub-unit - made up of two main components: glycerol and one or more fatty acids Sub-unit - made up of two main components: glycerol and one or more fatty acids glycerol and three fatty acids joined by dehydration synthesis glycerol and three fatty acids joined by dehydration synthesis

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11 Saturated and Unsaturated fats Saturated and Unsaturated fats Saturated fatty acid – possess no double bonded carbon - carbon (C = C) bonds Saturated fatty acid – possess no double bonded carbon - carbon (C = C) bonds Unsaturated fatty acid – possess one double bonded carbon – carbon (C = C) bond Unsaturated fatty acid – possess one double bonded carbon – carbon (C = C) bond Poly-unsaturated fatty acid – possess more than one double bonded carbon – carbon (C = C) bonds Poly-unsaturated fatty acid – possess more than one double bonded carbon – carbon (C = C) bonds

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13 Phospholipids Main component of cells membranes (phospholipid bilayer) Main component of cells membranes (phospholipid bilayer)phospholipid bilayerphospholipid bilayer

14 Proteins Main structural component of most cells Main structural component of most cells Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus plus nitrogen and even sulfur Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus plus nitrogen and even sulfur Main component of hair, muscle, fingernails, skin, cartilage, plus many other body tissue Main component of hair, muscle, fingernails, skin, cartilage, plus many other body tissue Important biological catalysts – enzymes – are made of protein – speed up biological reactions that might not happen at all without enzymes Important biological catalysts – enzymes – are made of protein – speed up biological reactions that might not happen at all without enzymes Enzymes commonly end in “ase” – eg: amylase breaks down amylose (starch) into maltose Enzymes commonly end in “ase” – eg: amylase breaks down amylose (starch) into maltose

15 Sub-unit – amino acids – over 20 different ones present in nature (8 are essential in our diet) Sub-unit – amino acids – over 20 different ones present in nature (8 are essential in our diet)amino acids amino acids Joining of two amino acids is called a di-peptide and forms a peptide bond Joining of two amino acids is called a di-peptide and forms a peptide bond Important word part “pep” Important word part “pep” Two bonded amino acids (by a peptide bond) is called a dipeptide Two bonded amino acids (by a peptide bond) is called a dipeptide Many joined amino acids bonded together called a polypeptide Many joined amino acids bonded together called a polypeptide Proteins are made at a cell site called ribosomes by a process called transcription Proteins are made at a cell site called ribosomes by a process called transcription

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18 Enzymes Commonly made of protein Commonly made of protein Speed up biological reactions (catalyst) Speed up biological reactions (catalyst) Have an optimum pH and temperature range Have an optimum pH and temperature range Are reusable (not consumed in the reaction), can be used over and over again Are reusable (not consumed in the reaction), can be used over and over again Substrate – target for a particular enzyme (eg. Substrate – amylose, enzyme – amylase Substrate – target for a particular enzyme (eg. Substrate – amylose, enzyme – amylase Enzymes have a 3D shape – join into it’s substrate like a key fits a lock Enzymes have a 3D shape – join into it’s substrate like a key fits a lock The first step in any enzyme catalyzed reaction is the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex. The first step in any enzyme catalyzed reaction is the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex. Cystic Fibrosis – enzyme problems Cystic Fibrosis – enzyme problems Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis

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20 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA DNA and RNA Nova online… Nova online… Nova online… Nova online… Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – hereditary molecule DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – hereditary molecule RNA – ribonucleic acid – help in protein synthesis RNA – ribonucleic acid – help in protein synthesis Nucleic acid molecules can be very long ( 1 metre)++ Nucleic acid molecules can be very long ( 1 metre)++

21 Sub-unit – nucleotides Sub-unit – nucleotides Journey into DNA Journey into DNA Journey into DNA Journey into DNA DNA copied in a process called replication DNA copied in a process called replication Information from the DNA is “read” and used to help make protein in a process called translation Information from the DNA is “read” and used to help make protein in a process called translation Three important cell processes Three important cell processes A. DNA Replication B. Transcription C. Translation

22 DNA and RNA DNA nucleotide – deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar), phosphoric acid (or phosphate) and one of 4 bases (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine) DNA nucleotide – deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar), phosphoric acid (or phosphate) and one of 4 bases (Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine) DNA – double stranded DNA – double stranded RNA nucleotide – ribose (5-carbon sugar), phosphoric acid (or phosphate) and one of 4 bases (Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine) RNA nucleotide – ribose (5-carbon sugar), phosphoric acid (or phosphate) and one of 4 bases (Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine) RNA – single stranded RNA – single stranded two types of RNA - mRNA (messenger RNA) & tRNA (transfer RNA) two types of RNA - mRNA (messenger RNA) & tRNA (transfer RNA)

23 Questions 1-3, page What is the relationship between a polymer and a monomer? - A polymer is a large molecule made up of smaller units, called monomers, which are linked together 2. Explain how both nucleic acids and proteins are polymers. Be sure to describe the monomers that make up the polymers. - Both are made of smaller units that are bonded together. Proteins are polymers of amino acids; nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. 3. Compare and contrast – how are carbohydrates and lipids similar? How are they different? - Both are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen - Both are used by cells as an energy source - Both have some structural function - Carbs – sugars and starches - Lipids – fats, waxes and oils

24 Questions Infer – Explain how the bonding properties of carbon atoms result in the large variety of carbon-based molecules in living things. - Carbon is able to form four covalent bonds with other atoms including other carbon atoms; many different combinations are possible. - Many other types of atoms can bond to carbon, and many different combinations are possible. 5. Biochemistry – Why might fatty acids, amino acids and nucleic acids increase the hydrogen ion (H + ) concentration of a solution? Explain your answer. - The molecules are acids, which increase the H + ion concentration in a solution and lower the pH.

25 Questions 1-3, page Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) breaks down into water (H 2 O) and oxygen (O 2 ). Explain why this is a chemical reaction. What are the reactants and products of the reaction? It is a chemical reaction because different substances are formed. It is a chemical reaction because different substances are formed. The reactant is hydrogen peroxide and the products are water and oxygen. The reactant is hydrogen peroxide and the products are water and oxygen. 2. How do endothermic and exothermic reactions differ? Endothermic reactions absorb energy Endothermic reactions absorb energy

26 Questions 3 & 4, p53 3. Infer – The process below is exothermic. What must be true about the bond energies of the reactants and the products? Explain. 6 O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 -> 6 CO H 2 O - The bond energies of the reactants must be higher than those of the products because excess energy is released. 4. Evaluate – Why might it not always be possible to determine the reactants and products in a reaction? Explain your answer in terms of chemical equilibrium. - Depending on the concentrations of the reactants and the products, both reactants and products may be formed at the same time if the reactions are reversible. At equilibrium, reactants and products are formed at the same rate.

27 Question 5, p53 5. Biochemistry – A chemical reaction can start when enough activation energy is added to the reactants. Do you think the activation energy for chemical reactions in living things is high or low? Explain your answer. - The activation energy for reactions must be relatively low because temperatures cannot be greatly increased in living things.

28 Questions 1-3, p56 1. How does a catalyst affect the activation energy of a chemical reaction? - A catalyst reduces the activation energy required to start a chemical reaction 2. Describe how the interaction between an enzyme and its substrate changes a chemical reaction. - An enzyme brings substrates close together so that they can react, and slightly alter (weaken) the bonds within the substrates by changing the shapes of the molecules. 3. Infer – Some organisms live in very hot or very acidic environments. Would their enzymes function in a person’s cells? Why or why not? - No, the enzymes function under different conditions than are found in humans.

29 Questions 4 & 5, p Predict – Suppose that the amino acids that make up an enzyme’s active site are changed. How might this change affect the enzyme? - The substrates would likely not bond to the enzyme because the shape of the active site would be changed. 5. Homeostasis – Organisms need to maintain homeostasis, or stable internal conditions. Why is homeostasis important for the function of enzymes? - If homeostatic conditions, such as temperature or pH, are not maintained, then the hydrogen bonds that keep an enzyme in it’s correct shape will weaken or break and the enzyme’s structure will change. This will affect its function.


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