1Kitchen & Larder Intermediate Lesson plan Stewing,Braising,RoastingAimThis lesson aims to cover the material related to this lesson.ObjectivesThis lesson is intended to help you to :Learn about stewing , braising and Pot roastingThe effect in cooking using such methodsSuitable methods for suitable foodsKitchen & Larder Intermediate Lesson plan
2Methods Of Cooking- Stewing DefinitionStewing is the slow cooking of food cut into pieces and cooked in the minimum amount of liquid ( water , stock or sauce); the food and the liquid are served together.
3Methods Of Cooking- Stewing PurposeBecause stewing is both economical and nutritional, cheaper cuts of meat and poultry , which would be unsuitable for roasting and grilling, can be made tender and palatable.Stewing also produces an acceptable flavour , texture and eating quality.
4Methods Of Cooking- Stewing All stews have a thickened consistency achieved by:The unpassed ingredients in the stew , such as Irish Stew
5Methods Of Cooking- Stewing All stews have a thickened consistency achieved by:Thickening of the cooking liquor , such as white stew ( Blanquette )
6Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Cooking in the sauce , such as Brown Stew ( Navarin )Stewed foods can be cooked in a covered pan on the stove or in a moderate oven.
7Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Effects of StewingIn the slow process of cooking in gentle heat the connective tissue in meat and poultry is converted into a gelatinous substance so that the fibres fall apart easily and became digestible.
8Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Effects of StewingThe protein is coagulated without being toughened .Unlike boiling less liquid is used and the cooking temperature is approximately 5°C lower.
9Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Advantages of StewingThe meat juices that escape from the meat during cooking are retained in the liquid , which is part of the stew.Correct slow cooking results in very little evaporation
10Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Advantages of StewingNutrients are conserved.Tough goods are tenderised.It is economical in labour because foods can be cooked in bulk.
11Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Advantages of StewingThe meat juices that escape from the meat during cooking are retained in the liquid , which is part of the stew.Correct slow cooking results in very little evaporation
12Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Temperature and time controlTemperature control is essential to the slow cooking required for efficient stewing; therefore the liquid must barely simmer.A tight fitting lid is used to retain steam , which helps maintain temperature and reduce evaporation.
13Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Temperature and time controlTime will vary according to the quality of the food used.The ideal cooking temperature for stewing on top of a stove is approximately 82°C ( 180°F ) simmering temperature , or cooking in the oven at 170°C ( gas mark 3, 340°F ).
14Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Care and cleanlinessThoroughly wash equipment with hot detergent water, rinse with hot water and dry.Moving parts of large –scale equipment should be greased occasionally.Store pans upside down on clean racks.
15Methods Of Cooking- Stewing Care and cleanlinessCheck that handles are not loose and that copper pans are completely tinned .Report any faults with large equipment.
16Methods Of Cooking- Stewing General RulesStews should not be over-thickened. The sauce should be light in consistency ; therefore , correct ratios of thickening agents are essential.Adjustment to the consistency should be made as required during cooking.
17Methods Of Cooking- Stewing General RulesOvercooking causes :Evaporation of the liquidBreaking up of the foodDiscolorationSpoilage of flavour
18Methods Of Cooking- Stewing SafetySelect suitable sized pans.Care is essential when removing hot pans from the oven.When removing lids be careful of escaping steam which may cause scalds.Sprinkle flour on hot-pans and lids after removal from the oven as a warning that they are hot
19Methods Of Cooking- Stewing SafetyEnsure that pan handles are not over the heat or sticking out from the stove.
20Methods Of Cooking- Braising DefinitionBraising is a method of cooking in the oven ; unlike roasting or baking , the food is cooked in liquid in a covered , dish , casserole or cocotte. It is a combination of stewing and pot roasting.
21Methods Of Cooking- Braising PurposeThe purpose of braising is:Give variety to the menu an the diet.To make food tender , digestible , palatable and safe to eat.To produce and enhance flavour , texture and eating quality.
22Methods Of Cooking- Braising Methods of BraisingThere are two methods ;Brown braising ,used for example , for joints and portion sized cuts of meat.White braising , used for example , for vegetables and sweetbreads.
23Methods Of Cooking- Braising Brown BraisingJoints such as beef and venison are marinated and may be larded , then sealed quickly by browning on all sides in a hot oven or in a pan on a stove.
24Methods Of Cooking- Braising Brown BraisingSealing the joints helps retain flavour , nutritive value and gives a good brown colour.
25Methods Of Cooking- Braising Brown BraisingJoints are then placed on a bed of root vegetables in a braising pan , with the liquid and other flavourings , covered with a lid and cooked slowly in the oven.Cuts ( steaks , chops , liver ). The brown braising of cuts of meat is similar to that of joints.
26Methods Of Cooking- Braising White BraisingWhite braising ( celery , cabbage and sweetbreads ).Foods are blanched , refreshed , cooked on a bed of root vegetables with white stock in a covered container in the oven.
27Methods Of Cooking- Braising Effects of BraisingCooking by braising causes the breakdown of the tissue fibre in the structure of certain foods, which softens the texture , thus making it tender and edible.The texture is also improved by being cooked in the braising liquid.
28Methods Of Cooking- Braising Advantages of BraisingTougher , less expensive meats and poultry can be used.Maximum flavour and nutritional value are retainedVariety of presentation and flavour is given to the menu
29Methods Of Cooking- Braising Time and temperature controlSlow cooking is essential for efficient braising ; the liquid must barely simmer.To reduce evaporation and maintain temperature use a tight-fitting lid.Time needed for braising will vary according to the quality of food.
30Methods Of Cooking- Braising Time and temperature controlIdeal temperature for braising is 160°C( gas mark 3 , 320°F )
31Methods Of Cooking- Braising General RulesThese are the same as for stewing. However , if the joint is to be served whole, the lid is removed three quarters of the way through cooking.The joint is then frequently basted to give a glaze for presentation.
32Methods Of Cooking- Braising SafetySelect a suitably sized pan with a tight-fitting lid and handles.Care is required when removing hot pans from the oven and when removing the lid.Sprinkle flour on hot pans and lids after removal from the oven as a warning that they are hot.
33Methods Of Cooking- Pot Roasting DefinitionPot roasting ( Poele’) is cooking on a bed of root vegetables in a covered pan.This method retains maximum flavour of all ingredients.
34Methods Of Cooking- Pot Roasting Place the food on a bed of roots and herbs , coat generously with butter or oil , cover with a lid and cook in the oven.
35Methods Of Cooking- Pot Roasting General RulesSelect pans neither too large nor too small.Use the vegetables and herbs with good stock as a base for the sauce.