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Memory and learning Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory and learning Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey."— Presentation transcript:

1 memory and learning Seven-year-olds allocate attention like adults unless working memory is overloaded Nelson Cowan Candice C. Morey Angela M. AuBuchon Christopher E. Zwilling Amanda L. Gilchrist (2010)

2 memory and learning Attend to … (‘classroom’) circlestrianglesboth equal 1: For 1.0 seconds - Fixation (‘boys’)(‘girls’) (‘boys + girls’)

3 memory and learning 2: For 0.5 seconds - Remember color + location

4 memory and learning 3: For 1.5 seconds - Retention interval

5 memory and learning 4: Probe display - Type 1 = No change

6 memory and learning 4: Probe display - Type 2 = Location change

7 memory and learning 4: Probe display - Type 3 = New color

8 memory and learning 4: Probe display - Type 4 = Other shape’s color

9 memory and learning Previous studies When children get older their visual working memory increases. Why? visual working memory younger childrenolder children

10 memory and learning Hypothesis Younger children are less able to exclude irrelevant items from working memory to make room for relevant items. working memory Younger children Older children

11 memory and learning An impression of the speed. Ready?

12 memory and learning

13 memory and learning

14 memory and learning

15 memory and learning

16 memory and learning The method 1/5 grades – 8 years old grades – 13 years old college students participants

17 memory and learning The method 2/5 10 possible circles, 10 possible triangles, both in 10 colors

18 memory and learning 8.19 cm The method 3/ cm

19 memory and learning The method 4/5, Trial condition 1-shape 1.Probe: 50% no-change 2.Probe: 25% location-change 3.Probe: 25% new-color

20 memory and learning The method 4/5, Trial condition 100% 1.Array: 50% attended shape, 50% other shape 2.Probe: Always the attended shape, 50% no-change, the rest divided: location-change/other color/new color

21 memory and learning The method 4/5, Trial condition 80% / 20% 1.Same as the 100% condition, except 2.Probe: 20% is the shape that had to be ignored 3.Probe: 40% no change

22 memory and learning The method 4/5, Trial condition 50% / 50% 1.Probe: 50% in location of a circle in the array 50% in location of a triangle in the array Change/No-change distribution as in 100% condition

23 memory and learning Proportion correct Usually-tested shapeNot-usually-tested shape 1 - Less- advanced group 2 - More-advanced group Expected capacities A: Same working memory + better filtering in group 2

24 memory and learning Expected capacities B: More working memory in group 2 + same filtering Proportion correct Usually-tested shapeNot-usually-tested shape 1 - Less- advanced group 2 - More-advanced group

25 memory and learning Expected capacities C: More working memory in group 2 + better filtering in group 2 Proportion correct Usually-tested shapeNot-usually-tested shape 1 - Less- advanced group 2 - More-advanced group

26 memory and learning Results 1/7, 1-shape condition k = No. array objects in working memory

27 memory and learning Results 2/7, 1-shape condition Clear effect groups > peak > decline age 7-8 age age 18+

28 memory and learning Results 3/7 – 2 or 3 objects: Attention young children is adult-like? YESNO

29 memory and learning Results 4/7 – 2 or 3 objects: Significant interaction attention age? NOYES

30 memory and learning Results 5/7 – 2 objects: Large difference working memory depend on attention? NO YES NO

31 memory and learning Results 6/7 Compared with expectations

32 memory and learning Results 7/7 Young children filter out items as well as older? YESNO

33 memory and learning Nestor question Katja: “It is mentioned that working memory capacity increases during elementary school, I wonder if this means that the neural basis develops, or if it is rather due to learning how to filter information when a lot of other information are present in working memory?”

34 memory and learning What do you think? Would young children be able to attend experiments like this? What would it be like? How can we do this?

35 memory and learning Thanks for your attention

36 memory and learning Additional info

37 memory and learning Additional info

38 memory and learning Additional info

39 Bunge & Wright: “A growing literature indicates that increased recruitment of task-related areas in frontal, parietal and striatal regions underlies improvements in working memory and cognitive control over the course of middle childhood and adolescence.” memory and learning Additional info

40 Information on how to participate young children in experiments memory and learning Additional info


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