Types of corolla with connate petals (continuation) Rotate – Solanum spp. bilabiate Lamium spp. Urceolate Vaccinium spp.
Types of corolla with free petals Papillonaceaous – Fabaceae (legume family)
Stamen Arrangements Magnolias have dozens of stamens Some have free stamens and others are fused at filaments
Some flowering plants are neither monocots or dicots. Magnolia ماگنولیا
Stamens continue In some specialized flowers the stamens are fused together. Form columnar structure i.e pea, melon and mallow fig 20-8d and sunflower 20-9d Some stamens fused with corolla i.e. snapdragon, phlox, and mint families.
Androecium (A): Totality of stamens in the flower  normal Didynamous Mint family (Lamiaceae) Tetradynamous Cabbage family Brassicaceae
Monadelphous Malvaceae Diadelphous: many Fabaceae
Monadelphous یک دسته پرچمی Polyadelphous چند دسته پرچمی Syngenesious پیوسته بساک Diadelphous دو دسته پرچمی
Double Fertilization Fertilization requires that pollen grains from anther to receptive stigma of a pistil Embryo sac forms with a stalk and 1 or 2 integuments that develop into seed coat Pollen reaches stigma and germinates to make pollen tube down style into the ovary –pollen that forms the pollen tube is the tube cell –2 nd cell in pollen grain is the generative cell as it divides and makes 2 sperm – move to a small opening in ovule called micropyle
The female parts of a flower The female part of the flower is made up of three main sections, the stigma, style and ovary. The receptive stigma serves as the landing pad for the male pollen. The style holds up the stigma and the ovary is the house for fertilisation and the seed. Together they are known as the Carpel Stigma Style Ovary Carpel
Apocarpous versus syncarpous gynoecium جدا برچه پیوسته برچه
تخمدان چندخانه ای Polylocular تخمدان یک خانه ای
Gynoecium (G): totality of carpels in the flower  Inferior ovary superior ovary Depending on the position of the ovary in relation to the calyx and corolla: hypanthium گل زیرین Hypogynous گل میانی Perigynous گل زبرین Epigynous
Types of plants with unisexual flowers Dioecious: male and female flowers are separated on different individuals; e.g. Cannabis spp. Monoecious: male and female flowers are found on the same individual; e.g. Pinus spp.
Define the symmetry of these flowers Convolvulus spp. Lamium spp *.|.
Variation in Basic Parts Some flowers lack sepals, petals, stamens or pistils Grasses have 3 stamens, 1 functional carpel (may have 2 non-functioning ones), no petals or sepals Others have either stamens or carpels but not both
47 Floral Diagram Symbols I
48 Floral Diagram Symbols II
49 Sample floral diagrams
General Flower-terms Peduncle: The stalk of a flower. Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk where the parts of the flower are attached. Sepal: The outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose the flower. Totality of sepals in a flower constitute the calyx. Petal: The parts of a flower that are often conspicuously colored. The totality of petals in a flower constitute the corolla. Perianth = calyx + corolla When the Sepals & Petals are identical, they are both called Tepals Androecium (male part): the totality of stamens in a flower. A stamen is formed from anther, which is supported by a slender filament. Anther: The part of the stamen where pollen is produced. Gynoecium (female part): totality of carpels in a flower. A carpel is formed from: ovary, style and stigma. The term Pistil has been used in the past to describe the gynoecium and this can cause some confusion in terminology Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the carpels where ovules are produced. Stile: the part supporting the stigma. Stigma: The part where where pollen germinates. Monoecious: Male and female flowers on the same individual. Dioecious: Male and female flowers are separated on different individuals, which are therefore, male and female.
Symmetry terms Actinomorphic. Radially symmetric; divisible into two essentially equal portions along any median longitudinal plane. Zygomorphic: Bilaterally symmetric; divisible into two essentially equal portions along only one median longitudinal plane. Reminder Note: ALL botanical terms can be found online at:
Monocot – Dicot: Comparisons
Types of Inflorescence Has an elongated inflorescence on the main stem. Ex: liatris, gladiolus Spike:
Types of Inflorescence Similar to a spike except florets arent directly attached to the stem Ex: delphinium Raceme:
Types of Inflorescence Has a flat top or slightly convex shape Has main stem with pedicels of unequal length Ex: yarrow Corymb:
Types of Inflorescence Broad and flat topped Has divisions that arise below a terminal flower Ex: Bird of Paradise Cyme:
Types of Inflorescence Flower cluster that is easily recognized Simple umbel has single pedicelled flowers all arising from the top of the main stem. Ex: agapanthus Compound umbel has secondary umbels arising from main stem. Ex: Queen Annes Lace Umbel:
Types of Inflorescence Short, dense cluster of flowers in a flat pattern Ex: sunflowers Head Flower:
Life Cycle Sperm is made in the pollen grain in the anther Egg made in embryo sac in the ovule Pollen grain and egg are gametophytes of flowering plants Zygote grows in ovule becomes first cell of new organism