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Flower morphology.

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Presentation on theme: "Flower morphology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flower morphology

2 “Complete” FLOWER Carpel

3 Complete flower (hermaphrodite)
Flower diagram Calyx (K) Corolla (C) Androecium (A) Gynoecium (G)

4 Bracts Definition --In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf. Example: Euphorbia pulcherrima

5 Flowers without a calyx and corolla differentiated
Perianth elements in this case are called tepals Petaloid tepals Sepaloid tepals

6 The calyx (K): Totality of sepals in the flower.
Calyx with connate (united) sepals: Fabaceae flower Calyx lobes Calyx tube Gamosepalous Silene spp.

7 Aposepalous Calyx with free sepals Stellaria media -chickweed
Rosa spp. Aposepalous Oenothera spp.

8 در برخی گیاهان با شکفته شدن گل کاسبرگ ها می افتد: خشخاش و شاه تره

9 عروسک پشت پرده Physalis


11 مهمیز


13 The corolla (C): Totality of petals in the flower
Corolla with free petals Papaver spp. Ranunculus spp. Polypetalous or Apopetalous

14 Sympetalous or Gamopetalous
Corolla with connate (united) petals Corolla tube Corolla lobes Digitalis spp. Campanula spp. Sympetalous or Gamopetalous

15 Types of corolla with connate petals
Bell-shaped Campanula spp Funnelform Petunia spp. Salveform Syringa vulgaris Ligulate Helinthus spp. Tubular Helianthus spp.

16 Types of corolla with connate petals (continuation)
Rotate – Solanum spp. bilabiate Lamium spp. Urceolate Vaccinium spp.

17 Types of corolla with free petals
Papillonaceaous – Fabaceae (legume family)

18 Stamens

19 Stamen Arrangements Magnolias have dozens of stamens
Some have free stamens and others are fused at filaments

20 ماگنولیا Some flowering plants are neither monocots or dicots.


22 Orchids



25 Stamens continue In some specialized flowers the stamens are fused together. Form columnar structure i.e pea, melon and mallow fig 20-8d and sunflower 20-9d Some stamens fused with corolla i.e. snapdragon, phlox, and mint families.


27 Androecium (A): Totality of stamens in the flower [♂]
Tetradynamous Cabbage family Brassicaceae Didynamous Mint family (Lamiaceae) “normal”

28 Diadelphous: many Fabaceae
Monadelphous Malvaceae

29 Polyadelphous چند دسته پرچمی
Diadelphous دو دسته پرچمی Monadelphous یک دسته پرچمی Syngenesious پیوسته بساک


31 Flower Anatomy

32 Double Fertilization Fertilization requires that pollen grains from anther to receptive stigma of a pistil Embryo sac forms with a stalk and 1 or 2 integuments that develop into seed coat Pollen reaches stigma and germinates to make pollen tube down style into the ovary pollen that forms the pollen tube is the tube cell 2nd cell in pollen grain is the generative cell as it divides and makes 2 sperm – move to a small opening in ovule called micropyle

33 The female parts of a flower
The female part of the flower is made up of three main sections, the stigma, style and ovary. The receptive stigma serves as the “landing pad” for the male pollen. The style holds up the stigma and the ovary is the “house” for fertilisation and the seed. Together they are known as the Carpel Stigma Style Carpel Ovary




37 Apocarpous versus syncarpous gynoecium
جدا برچه پیوسته برچه

38 تخمدان چندخانه ای Polylocular Apocarpus [with free carpels] carpels
Syncarpous [with connate carpels] تخمدان چندخانه ای Polylocular

39 تخمدان یک خانه ای تخمدان چندخانه ای Polylocular

40 Gynoecium (G): totality of carpels in the flower [♀]
Depending on the position of the ovary in relation to the calyx and corolla: hypanthium گل زبرین Epigynous گل میانی Perigynous گل زیرین Hypogynous Inferior ovary superior ovary

41 Ovary position inferior hypanthium superior

42 Male (staminate) & Female (pistillate) flowers (incomplete)
Staminate (male) flowers (cucumber) Pistillate (female) flowers (cucumber)

43 Types of plants with unisexual flowers
Dioecious: male and female flowers are separated on different individuals; e.g. Cannabis spp. Monoecious: male and female flowers are found on the same individual; e.g. Pinus spp.

44 Flower symmetry Zygomorphic .|. (bilateral) Actinomorphic (radial) *

45 Define the symmetry of these flowers
* Convolvulus spp. .|. Lamium spp

46 Variation in Basic Parts
Some flowers lack sepals, petals, stamens or pistils Grasses have 3 stamens, 1 functional carpel (may have 2 non-functioning ones), no petals or sepals Others have either stamens or carpels but not both

47 Floral Diagram Symbols I

48 Floral Diagram Symbols II

49 Sample floral diagrams

50 General Flower-terms Peduncle: The stalk of a flower. Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk where the parts of the flower are attached. Sepal: The outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose the flower. Totality of sepals in a flower constitute the calyx. Petal: The parts of a flower that are often conspicuously colored. The totality of petals in a flower constitute the corolla. Perianth = calyx + corolla When the Sepals & Petals are identical, they are both called Tepals Androecium (male part): the totality of stamens in a flower. A stamen is formed from anther, which is supported by a slender filament. Anther: The part of the stamen where pollen is produced. Gynoecium (female part): totality of carpels in a flower. A carpel is formed from: ovary, style and stigma. The term Pistil has been used in the past to describe the gynoecium and this can cause some confusion in terminology Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the carpels where ovules are produced. Stile: the part supporting the stigma. Stigma: The part where where pollen germinates. Monoecious: Male and female flowers on the same individual. Dioecious: Male and female flowers are separated on different individuals, which are therefore, male and female.

51 ALL botanical terms can be found online at:
Symmetry terms Actinomorphic. Radially symmetric; divisible into two essentially equal portions along any median longitudinal plane. Zygomorphic: Bilaterally symmetric; divisible into two essentially equal portions along only one median longitudinal plane. Reminder Note: ALL botanical terms can be found online at:


53 Monocot – Dicot: Comparisons

54 Types of Inflorescence
Spike: Has an elongated inflorescence on the main stem. Ex: liatris, gladiolus

55 Types of Inflorescence
Raceme: Similar to a spike except florets aren’t directly attached to the stem Ex: delphinium

56 Types of Inflorescence
Corymb: Has a flat top or slightly convex shape Has main stem with pedicels of unequal length Ex: yarrow

57 Types of Inflorescence
Cyme: Broad and flat topped Has divisions that arise below a terminal flower Ex: Bird of Paradise

58 Types of Inflorescence
Umbel: Flower cluster that is easily recognized Simple umbel has single pedicelled flowers all arising from the top of the main stem. Ex: agapanthus Compound umbel has secondary umbels arising from main stem. Ex: Queen Anne’s Lace

59 Types of Inflorescence
Head Flower: Short, dense cluster of flowers in a flat pattern Ex: sunflowers

60 Life Cycle Sperm is made in the pollen grain in the anther
Egg made in embryo sac in the ovule Pollen grain and egg are gametophytes of flowering plants Zygote grows in ovule becomes first cell of new organism

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