25Stamens continueIn some specialized flowers the stamens are fused together.Form columnar structure i.e pea, melon and mallow fig 20-8d and sunflower 20-9dSome stamens fused with corolla i.e. snapdragon, phlox, and mint families.
32Double FertilizationFertilization requires that pollen grains from anther to receptive stigma of a pistilEmbryo sac forms with a stalk and 1 or 2 integuments that develop into seed coatPollen reaches stigma and germinates to make pollen tube down style into the ovarypollen that forms the pollen tube is the tube cell2nd cell in pollen grain is the generative cell as it divides and makes 2 sperm – move to a small opening in ovule called micropyle
33The female parts of a flower The female part of the flower is made up of three main sections, the stigma, style and ovary. The receptive stigma serves as the “landing pad” for the male pollen. The style holds up the stigma and the ovary is the “house” for fertilisation and the seed. Together they are known as the CarpelStigmaStyleCarpelOvary
40Gynoecium (G): totality of carpels in the flower [♀] Depending on the position of the ovary in relation to the calyx and corolla:hypanthiumگل زبرینEpigynousگل میانیPerigynousگل زیرینHypogynousInferior ovarysuperior ovary
43Types of plants with unisexual flowers Dioecious: male and female flowers are separated on different individuals; e.g. Cannabis spp.Monoecious: male and female flowers are found on the same individual; e.g. Pinus spp.
45Define the symmetry of these flowers *Convolvulus spp..|.Lamium spp
46Variation in Basic Parts Some flowers lack sepals, petals, stamens or pistilsGrasses have 3 stamens, 1 functional carpel (may have 2 non-functioning ones), no petals or sepalsOthers have either stamens or carpels but not both
50General Flower-termsPeduncle: The stalk of a flower. Receptacle: The part of a flower stalk where the parts of the flower are attached. Sepal: The outer parts of the flower (often green and leaf-like) that enclose the flower. Totality of sepals in a flower constitute the calyx. Petal: The parts of a flower that are often conspicuously colored. The totality of petals in a flower constitute the corolla.Perianth = calyx + corollaWhen the Sepals & Petals are identical, they are both called TepalsAndroecium (male part): the totality of stamens in a flower. A stamen is formed from anther, which is supported by a slender filament. Anther: The part of the stamen where pollen is produced. Gynoecium (female part): totality of carpels in a flower. A carpel is formed from: ovary, style and stigma. The term Pistil has been used in the past to describe the gynoecium and this can cause some confusion in terminologyOvary: The enlarged basal portion of the carpels where ovules are produced.Stile: the part supporting the stigma.Stigma: The part where where pollen germinates. Monoecious: Male and female flowers on the same individual.Dioecious: Male and female flowers are separated on different individuals, which are therefore, male and female.
51ALL botanical terms can be found online at: Symmetry termsActinomorphic. Radially symmetric; divisible into two essentially equal portions along any median longitudinal plane.Zygomorphic: Bilaterally symmetric; divisible into two essentially equal portions along only one median longitudinal plane.Reminder Note:ALL botanical terms can be found online at:
54Types of Inflorescence Spike:Has an elongated inflorescence on the main stem.Ex: liatris, gladiolus
55Types of Inflorescence Raceme:Similar to a spike except florets aren’t directly attached to the stemEx: delphinium
56Types of Inflorescence Corymb:Has a flat top or slightly convex shapeHas main stem with pedicels of unequal lengthEx: yarrow
57Types of Inflorescence Cyme:Broad and flat toppedHas divisions that arise below a terminal flowerEx: Bird of Paradise
58Types of Inflorescence Umbel:Flower cluster that is easily recognizedSimple umbel has single pedicelled flowers all arising from the top of the main stem. Ex: agapanthusCompound umbel has secondary umbels arising from main stem. Ex: Queen Anne’s Lace
59Types of Inflorescence Head Flower:Short, dense cluster of flowers in a flat patternEx: sunflowers
60Life Cycle Sperm is made in the pollen grain in the anther Egg made in embryo sac in the ovulePollen grain and egg are gametophytes of flowering plantsZygote grows in ovule becomes first cell of new organism