Presentation on theme: "1 Using the Media to develop public communication campaigns by Gilbert A. Williams, Ph.D.,Michigan State University."— Presentation transcript:
1 Using the Media to develop public communication campaigns by Gilbert A. Williams, Ph.D.,Michigan State University
2 Public Communication campaigns Gathering baseline data is important so that you can determine if the campaign has achieved the desired results. Thus, finding information that shows current prevalence rates is very important.
3 Using the Media Before starting a campaign, it is also important to find out where the population is in terms of what you are attempting to change or prevent. Moral and ethical issues are important considerations at this point. You may need to alter your goals so that moral issues are not compromised.
3 Using the media Before starting a campaign, it is also important to find out where the population is in terms of what you are attempting to change or prevent. Thus, you should determine that the problem is a serious one, and an effective solution is possible, and moreover, that the media can achieve the desired solution.
5 Using the media Health Communication Strategies: because of the wide ranging cultural factors facing professionals who need to develop public communication using the media, it is imperative that you learn as much as possible about the target audience before initiating the campaign.
6 Using the media The key to discovering the possible cultural barriers to the campaign is to employ focus groups. By using focus groups you will be able to identify the thoughts, feelings and actions of the target audience.focus groups.
7 Using the Media Focus groups will allow you to identify cultural barriers, elicit information that may be used as themes in a media campaign and learn about useful ways of reaching the target population using the media.
8 Using the media Focus groups should consist of homogenous individuals and be conducted over a relatively short period of time, about three months. The number of focus groups conducted will depend on time and resources. In general, three to five focus groups should be sufficient to gather enough information to prepare materials,informally elicit responses from the target audience and develop a theoretical approach for the media campaign.
Using the media The transcripts from the focus groups should be analyzed using a computer assisted program such as Nud*ist and read by those preparing the campaign. The trends and themes that emerge will lead to greater understanding of the target audience’s media usage, ideas concerning the topic of the campaign, and perhaps, uncover new concepts not yet conceived of by the media specialists.
10 Using the Media The focus groups will also assist in the development of the media campaign. Thus, phrases concepts and ideas mentioned during the focus groups may be used in creating mediated messages. The sources, messages and channels will be identified at this point. Source: this could be an individual, agency or government.
11 Using the media Messages: these will include phrases, ideas and culturally relevant concepts to the target audience. These messages may be seen on television, an Internet web site, heard in a radio public service announcement or read in a newspaper, or on a billboard, flyer or personalized letter.
12 Using the Media Channels: could be print, broadcast or computer. The print channels, i.e., brochures, flyers or articles must be carefully selected not only for their relevance to the target population but also for literacy and its impact on those who read.
13 Using the Media Broadcast channels can be quite expensive and difficult to use. Television stations do allow public service announcements but the scattered nature of their placements may dilute their force. Similarly, radio stations also allow public service announcements but clutter in both venues dissipates the force of the PSAs.
14 Using the Media When using broadcast media, therefore, it is highly recommended that public communication campaigns buy time in these media. In the instance of radio, you should use the services of a media Representative Firm, such as Katz or Interep. These companies will assist in the design, creation and placement of advertising spots.
15 Using the Media In addition to reaching specific media outlets, media campaigns should also target opinion leaders among the target population.Using Paul Lazarsfeld’s concept of the two step flow hypothesis, i.e., using media to influence the opinion leaders and they will in turn influence members of the target population, will increase the campaign’s effectiveness.
16 Using the Media Internet web sites are useful and the number of “hits”records feedback. It is also possible to gather information on who (demographic information) visited the site, as well.
17 Using the Media Evaluation: Public media campaigns are expensive and should be evaluated for their effectiveness. Collecting valid baseline data allows you to compare populations at the conclusion of the media campaign.Several methods of evaluation exist. Among them are: surveys, process monitoring and experimental--which is most appropriate depends on your research design. Http://www.msu.edu/~willia74