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1 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DENTAL MATERIALS (BIOCOMPATIBILIT Y) By Head of Department Dr Rashid Hassan Assistant Professor Science Of Dental Materials.

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Presentation on theme: "1 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DENTAL MATERIALS (BIOCOMPATIBILIT Y) By Head of Department Dr Rashid Hassan Assistant Professor Science Of Dental Materials."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DENTAL MATERIALS (BIOCOMPATIBILIT Y) By Head of Department Dr Rashid Hassan Assistant Professor Science Of Dental Materials Department Rawal institute of Health Sciences Rawal College of Dentistry Islamabad

2 BIOMATERIAL “When a material is placed within, or in contact with the human body, it is referred to as biomaterial” “When a material is placed within, or in contact with the human body, it is referred to as biomaterial”OR “A non living material designed to interact with the biological system” “A non living material designed to interact with the biological system” 2

3 BIOCOMPATIBILITY Defined as, Defined as, “The ability of a material to elicit an appropriate biological response in a given application in the body.” The material is said to be “biocompatible” when it possesses the property of being non destructive in a biological system. The material is said to be “biocompatible” when it possesses the property of being non destructive in a biological system. 3

4 BIOMECHANICS “Behavior of a material in real structures is known as mechanics” “Behavior of a material in real structures is known as mechanics” “Biomechanics is application of mechanics to biomaterials” “Biomechanics is application of mechanics to biomaterials” Biomechanics involve. Biomechanics involve. a) Limitation of a material. b) Restorative design. 4

5 5 ADVERSE EFFECTS FROM DENTAL MATERIALS Adverse effects may be, Adverse effects may be, Toxic. Toxic. Inflammatory. Inflammatory. Allergic. Allergic. Mutagenic. Mutagenic. These effects are differentiated on the basis of histological and pathological analysis of tissues.

6 TOXICITY Earliest response studied. Earliest response studied. First screening test for every material. First screening test for every material. Materials may release toxic substances. Materials may release toxic substances.e.g. lead containing materials. 6

7 INFLAMMATION Second type. Second type. Activate immune response of the host. Activate immune response of the host. May be due to toxicity or allergy. May be due to toxicity or allergy. Inflammation precedes toxicity. Inflammation precedes toxicity.e.g. Pulpal and Periodontal diseases. 7

8 ALLERGY Most Familiar to the general public. Most Familiar to the general public. Body specifically recognizes a material as a foreign body and reacts disproportionately to the amount of material. Body specifically recognizes a material as a foreign body and reacts disproportionately to the amount of material. Involves all the dimensions of the immune system. Involves all the dimensions of the immune system. Can be difficult to differentiate from non- allergic inflammation or low grade toxicity. Can be difficult to differentiate from non- allergic inflammation or low grade toxicity. E.g. Latex. E.g. Latex. 8

9 MUTAGENIC REACTION Occurs when the components of the materials alter the base pair sequence of DNA. Occurs when the components of the materials alter the base pair sequence of DNA. May be due to direct / indirect interactions. May be due to direct / indirect interactions. Does not imply carcinogenicity. Does not imply carcinogenicity. Metal ions from a dental material (nickel, beryllium and copper) Metal ions from a dental material (nickel, beryllium and copper) 9

10 10 LOCAL and SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF MATERIALS LOCAL EFFECTS: Occur in the pulp of the tooth, periodontium, nearby mucosa or root apex. Depends upon the ability of material. Depends upon the ability of material. E.g. Nickel containing crowns. E.g. Nickel containing crowns.

11 11 LOCAL and SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF MATERIALS SYSTEMIC EFFECTS: Due to substances that gain access to the body. ingestion and absorption from the gut, inhaled vapor, absorption through oral mucosa or release from the tooth apex.

12 12 LOCAL and SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF MATERIALS SYSTEMIC EFFECTS: May occur by blood or lymphatic transport or simply by diffusion. Systemic effect depends upon, 1. Duration and concentration of exposure. 2. Excretion rate of substance. 3. Site of exposure.

13 13 MEASURING BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DENTAL MATERIALS Biological response is related to the use of a material. Biological response is related to the use of a material. Factors affecting biological response: Factors affecting biological response: 1. Location of the material. 2. Duration of the material in the body. 3. Stresses placed on the materials.

14 14 1.Location of the material Surroundings can be a soft tissue or a hard tissue. Surroundings can be a soft tissue or a hard tissue. May be exposed directly to the blood, tissue fluids or saliva or through a barrier. May be exposed directly to the blood, tissue fluids or saliva or through a barrier. Might be placed externally or internally to the oral epithelium. Might be placed externally or internally to the oral epithelium.

15 15 2. Duration of the material in the body May be: May be: 1.Short duration-> 4 – 6 minutes. e.g. Impression materials. 2.Longer duration-> for ten years. e.g. Fixed prosthesis. Longer duration provides more time to the material and body to react to each other. Longer duration provides more time to the material and body to react to each other.

16 16 3.Stresses placed on the materials Stresses may be physical, chemical or thermal. Stresses may be physical, chemical or thermal. Properties of the material comes under consideration. Properties of the material comes under consideration. E.g. Strength of a material. Fatigue stresses. Fatigue stresses.

17 TESTS FOR MEASURING BIOCOMPATIBILITY 17

18 18 TYPES OF TESTS 3 basic types of tests. 3 basic types of tests. 1. The in vitro test. 2. The animal test. 3. The usage test. No single test can measure the biological response accurately. No single test can measure the biological response accurately.

19 1.IN VITRO TEST Performed outside the organism. Performed outside the organism. First screening test to evaluate biological response of a new material. First screening test to evaluate biological response of a new material. Conducted in test tube, cell culture dish, flask or other container. Conducted in test tube, cell culture dish, flask or other container. Contact may be direct/indirect. Contact may be direct/indirect. 19

20 20 1.IN VITRO TEST ADVANTAGES Relatively fast. Relatively fast. Inexpensive. Inexpensive. Easily standardized. Easily standardized. Controlled conditions. Controlled conditions. Large scale testing. Large scale testing.DISADVANTAGES Lack of relevance to in vivo conditions. Lack of relevance to in vivo conditions. Lack of complex systemic co- ordinations. Lack of complex systemic co- ordinations.

21 2.THE ANIMAL TEST Material placed into an intact organism. Material placed into an intact organism. Commonly used animals are mice, rats, hamsters or guinea pigs. Commonly used animals are mice, rats, hamsters or guinea pigs. Other animals used are cats, sheep's, dogs, monkeys and baboons. Other animals used are cats, sheep's, dogs, monkeys and baboons. Distinct from usage tests. Distinct from usage tests. 21

22 22 2.THE ANIMAL TEST ADVANTAGES Intact biological system. Intact biological system. Act as a bridge between in vitro and usage test. Act as a bridge between in vitro and usage test.DISADVANTAGES Expansive. Expansive. Difficult to control. Difficult to control. May take months or years. May take months or years. Ethical concerns. Ethical concerns.

23 3.USAGE TEST Performed in animals or humans. Performed in animals or humans. In case of humans it is called as clinical trial. In case of humans it is called as clinical trial. Choice of animal is limited. Choice of animal is limited. Animals used should be large, with anatomy similar to the humans. Animals used should be large, with anatomy similar to the humans. Human clinical trial is the “gold standard”. Human clinical trial is the “gold standard”. 23

24 24 3.USAGE TEST DISADVANTAGES: Very costly. Very costly. In case of humans  ethical permission requires. In case of humans  ethical permission requires. Prolonged time required for results. Prolonged time required for results. Legal liabilities. Legal liabilities.

25 25 TESTS USED TOGETHER No single test can evaluate biocompatibility. No single test can evaluate biocompatibility. Three phases are recognized Three phases are recognized 1. Primary phase. 2. Secondary phase. 3. Usage phase.

26 26 TESTS USED TOGETHER Usage SECONDARY PRIMARY Progress of testing Number of materials

27 27 TESTS USED TOGETHER PRIMARY PHASE Performed initially for testing a new material. Often in vitro. May also include some animal tests for systemic toxicity.

28 28 TESTS USED TOGETHER SECONDARY PHASE Always conducted in animals. Always conducted in animals. Used to rule out any dermal irritation, chronic toxicity or response upon implantation. Used to rule out any dermal irritation, chronic toxicity or response upon implantation. Can also rule out inflammation, allergy and sub lethal biological responses. Can also rule out inflammation, allergy and sub lethal biological responses. USAGE PHASE:- USAGE PHASE:- Same as discussed previously

29 29 TESTS USED TOGETHER Usage SECONDARY PRIMARY Progress of testing Number of materials

30 CURRENT BIOCOMPATIBILTY ISSUES IN DENTISTRY Latex: Latex: Incidence rate 6% - 7% may cause localized rashes or swelling, dermatitis of hands (eczema) Nickel: Nickel: Incidence rate 10% - 20%. 100% of patients sensitive to palladium will be sensitive to nickel. 30

31 CURRENT BIOCOMPATIBILTY ISSUES IN DENTISTRY Nickel: Nickel: But only 33% of individuals allergic to nickel will be allergic to palladium. But only 33% of individuals allergic to nickel will be allergic to palladium. Etiology not known. Etiology not known. Beryllium: Beryllium: Only used in 1% – 2% by weight in Ni-Cr alloy. Only used in 1% – 2% by weight in Ni-Cr alloy. Carcinogenic effects. Carcinogenic effects. Can cause “beryllosis Can cause “beryllosis”. 31

32 QUESTIONS ???? QUESTION S??? 32


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