Presentation on theme: "ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers)"— Presentation transcript:
1ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers) Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D.B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)Ph.D., Ind. Eng. Penn State University, (Foundry Engineering – CG Alloy Development)
2Syllabus and Website: Review the Syllabus Attendance is your job – come to class!Final is Common Time at the Beginning of the Finals PeriodSemi-Pop Quizzes and homework/Chapter Reviews (Ch 17 & 18) – (20% of your grade!) – note, additional homework (not to be collected) is suggested to prepare for quizzes and exams!Don’t copy from others; don’t plagiarize – its just the right thing to do!!Course Website:
3Materials Science for Engineering: an Introduction Our Text:Materials Science for Engineering: an Introduction By Callister & Rethwisch8th Edition, Wiley, 2010.
4Materials Science and Engineering It all about the (raw) materials and how they are processedThat is why we call it materials ENGINEERINGMinor differences in Raw materials or processing parameters can mean major changes in the performance of the final material or product
5Why the class?As ME/IE we are involved in design of products or processesWhen making up a design, what materials we use are critical (and driven by the function of the design)When investigating processes, minor changes can have a major impact on the results
6Materials Science and Engineering The discipline of investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties (or performance) of materials.Materials EngineeringThe discipline of designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties based on established structure-property correlation.Four Major Components of Material Science and Engineering:Structure of MaterialsProperties of MaterialsProcessing of MaterialsPerformance of Materials
7Material Selection in Design Properties are a link between the fundamental issues of materials science and the practical challenges of materials engineering. (FromG. E. Dieter, in ASM Handbook,Vol. 20: Materials Selection and Design, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1997, p. 245.)
8And Remember: Materials “Drive” our Society! Ages of “Man” and note, we survive based on the materials we control!Stone Age – naturally occurring materialsSpecial rocks, skins, woodBronze AgeCasting and forgingIron AgeHigh Temperature furnaces and strong materialsSteel AgeHigh Strength AlloysNon-Ferrous and Polymer AgeAluminum, Titanium and Nickel (superalloys) – aerospaceSilicon – InformationPlastics and Composites – food preservation, housing, aerospace and higher speedsExotic Materials Age?Nano-Material and bio-Materials – they are coming and then …
16Doing Materials! Engineered Materials are a function of: Raw Materials Elemental ControlProcessing HistoryOur Role in Engineering Materials then is to understand the application and specify the appropriate material to do the job as a function of:Strength: yield and ultimateDuctility, flexibilityWeight/densityWorking EnvironmentCost: Lifecycle expenses, Environmental impact** Economic and Environmental Factors often are the most important when making the final decision!
17Introduction List the Major Types of MATERIALS That You Know: METALS CERAMICS/GlassesPOLYMERSCOMPOSITESADVANCED MATERIALS( Nano-materials, electronic materials)
18Introduction, cont. Metals Ceramics Polymers Composites Steel, Cast Iron, Aluminum, Copper, Titanium, many othersCeramicsGlass, Concrete, Brick, Alumina, Zirconia, SiN, SiCPolymersPlastics, Wood, Cotton (rayon, nylon), “glue”CompositesGlass Fiber-reinforced polymers, Carbon Fiber-reinforced polymers, Metal Matrix Composites, etc.
19Thoughts about these “fundamental” Materials Metals:Strong, ductilehigh thermal & electrical conductivityopaque, reflective.Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic & non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)Brittle, glassy, inelasticnon-conducting (insulators)Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding sharing of e’sSoft, ductile, low strength, low densitythermal & electrical insulatorsOptically translucent or transparent.Metals have high thermal & electrical conductivity because valence electrons are free to roam
20Structural Steel (a fundamental engineered metal) in Use: The Golden Gate Bridge
23Periodic table ceramic compounds are a combination of one or more metallic elements (in light color) with one or more nonmetallic elements (in dark color).
24Glasses: atomic-scale structure of (a) a ceramic (crystalline) and (b) a glass (noncrystalline)
25Optical Properties of Ceramic are controlled by “Grain Structure” Grain Structure is a function of “Solidification” processing!
26Polymers are typically inexpensive and are characterized by ease of formation and adequate structural properties
27Periodic table with the elements associated with commercial polymers in color
28Composite Materials – oh so many combinations Fiber Glass Composite:
29The Materials Selection Process – as a part of design 1.Engineered Application will Determine required PropertiesProperties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,magnetic, optical, deteriorative.2.PropertiesIdentify candidate Material(s)Material: structure, composition.3.MaterialIdentify required ProcessingProcessing: changes structure and overall shapeex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, dopingforming, joining, annealing.
30These so-called Ashby Charts are developed for comparing candidate materials considering many design factorsMaterials property chart with a view of relative materials performance. Here plots of elastic modulus and density data (on logarithmic scales) for various materials indicate that members of the different categories of structural materials tend to group together. (After M. F. Ashby, Materials Selection in Engineering Design, Pergamon Press, Inc., Elmsford, NY, 1992.)
31Processing can change structure! (see above structure vs Cooling Rate) But:Properties depend on Structure (strength or hardness)(d)30 mm600500(c)4 mm400(b)30 mm(a)30 mmHardness (BHN)3002001000.010.11101001000Cooling Rate (ºC/s)And:Processing can change structure! (see above structure vs Cooling Rate)
32Another Example: Rolling of Steel At h1, L1low UTSlow YShigh ductilityround grainsAt h2, L2high UTShigh YSlow ductilityelongated grainsStructure determines Properties but Processing determines Structure!
33Electrical Properties (of Copper): T (°C)-200-100Cu at%NiCu at%Nideformed Cu at%Ni123456Resistivity, r(10-8 Ohm-m)Cu at%Ni“Pure” CuElectrical Resistivity of Copper is affected by:Contaminate levelDegree of deformationOperating temperaturefrom: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik 5, 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1970.)
34THERMAL Properties • Space Shuttle Tiles: • Thermal Conductivity --Silica fiber insulationoffers low heat conduction.• Thermal Conductivityof Copper: --It decreases whenyou add zinc!Composition (wt% Zinc)Thermal Conductivity(W/m-K)40030020010010203040100 mmfrom Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA)
35MAGNETIC Properties • Magnetic Permeability vs. Composition: --Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a better recording medium!• Magnetic Storage:--Recording mediumis magnetized byrecording head.Magnetic FieldMagnetizationFe+3%SiFeAdapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, andA.S. Tetelman, The Principles ofEngineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,Electronically reproducedby permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990
36DETERIORATIVE Properties • Heat treatment: slowscrack speed in salt water!• Stress & Saltwater...--causes cracks!“held at160ºC for 1 hrbefore testing”increasing loadcrack speed (m/s)“as-is”10-10-8Alloy 7178 tested insaturated aqueous NaClsolution at 23ºCAdapted from Fig (b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)4 mm--material:7150-T651 Al "alloy"(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)G.H. Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.
37Example of Materials Engineering Work – Hip Implant With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate. Particularly those with large loads (such as hip).
38Example – Hip Implant Requirements mechanical strength (many cycles) good lubricitybiocompatibility
40Solution – Hip Implant Key Problems to overcome: Acetabular Cup and LinerKey Problems to overcome:fixation agent to hold acetabular cupcup lubrication materialfemoral stem – fixing agent (“glue”)must avoid any debris in cupMust hold up in body chemistryMust be strong yet flexibleBallFemoralStem
41Often, material selection comes down to a tradeoff of cost vs Often, material selection comes down to a tradeoff of cost vs. design property
42Course Goal is to make you aware of the importance of Material Selection by: Choosing the right material for the job-- one that is the most economical and “Greenest” when life cycle usage is considered. As designers we must consider “Sustainability” in our designs and material choicesUnderstanding the relation between properties, structure, and processing.Recognizing new design opportunities offered by materials selection.