Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Leading Technical People"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 7 Leading Technical People 3/25/2017Chapter 7 Leading Technical People
2Advanced Organizer Managing Engineering and Technology Decision Making 3/25/2017Advanced OrganizerDecision MakingPlanningOrganizingLeadingControllingManagement FunctionsResearchDesignProductionQualityMarketingProject ManagementManaging TechnologyTime ManagementEthicsCareerPersonal TechnologyManaging Engineering and Technology
3Chapter Objectives Explain the difference between leaders and managers 3/25/2017Chapter ObjectivesExplain the difference between leaders and managersDescribe the nature of leadership and its significance to an organizationAddress the application of servant leadership in current organizationsRecognize the different views of motivation
5Leadership & Management 3/25/2017Leadership & ManagementLeadersManagersInnovateAdministerAsk what and whyAsk how and whenFocus on peopleFocus on systemsDo the right thingsDo things rightDevelopMaintainLonger term perspectiveShort term perspectiveOriginateImitateAre originalAre a copy--Warren Bennis
63/25/2017Nature of LeadershipLeadership is the process of getting the cooperation of others in accomplishing a desired goal.“mixture of persuasion, compulsion, and example that makes men do what you want them to do.”--Sir William Slim, commander of the British Army “You know what makes leadership? It is the ability to get men to do what they don't want to do and like it.”--Harry Truman
73/25/2017Types of LeadersFormal leaders are appointed branch manager or committee chair or team captain and have the advantage of formal authority (including the power to reward and punish), but this only gives them the opportunity to prove themselves effective at leadership.Emergent, or informal leaders evolve based on their expertise or referent power as it is expressed in the process of group activity.
8Identifying Potential Leaders 3/25/2017Identifying Potential LeadersLeadership TraitsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
93/25/2017Leadership TraitsPhysical qualities of health, vitality, and endurance;Personal attributes of personal magnetism, cooperativeness, enthusiasm, ability to inspire, persuasiveness, forcefulness, and tact;Character attributes of integrity, humanism, self-discipline, stability, and industry; andIntellectual qualities of mental capacity, ability to teach others, and a scientific approach to problems.
10Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) 3/25/2017Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)1. The most favored Energy Source:The way people prefer to interact with the world, and the way they prefer to receive stimulation and energy.(E) Extraversion <> (I) Introversion2. The most favored Perceiving Mental Process:The way people prefer to get data.(S) Sensing <> (N) Intuition3. The favored Judging Mental Process:The way people prefer to make decisions(T) Thinking <> (F) Feeling4. The mental process leads to Outside World Orientation:The way people prefer to orient their lives(J) Judging <> (P) Perceiving
11Classification of Leadership Style 3/25/2017Classification of Leadership StyleI. People/Task Matrix ApproachesThe Leadership GridOhio State studiesHersey and Blanchard life-cycle theoryII. Situational ApproachesLeadership continuumOther viewpoints
12People/Task Matrix approaches The Leadership Grid 3/25/2017People/Task Matrix approaches The Leadership Grid(9,9) Team Management, in which individual objectives are achieved in the process of achieving organizational goals,(1,9) Country Club ManagementConcern for People(5,5) Middle of the Road Management(9,1) Authority Compliance Management(1,1) Impoverished ManagementConcern for Production
13Ohio State studies L(IS)/H(C) L(IS)/L(C) H(IS)/H(C) H(IS)/L(C) 3/25/2017Ohio State studiesLowHighInitiatingStructure (IS)HighLowConsideration (C)L(IS)/H(C)L(IS)/L(C)H(IS)/H(C)H(IS)/L(C)Findings:High IS – High C may not be the most effectiveHigh IS helps only if task is unstructured.High C helps only if there is no adequate alt. source of satisfaction
14Hersey and Blanchard life-cycle theory (or "maturity" theory) 3/25/2017Hersey and Blanchard life-cycle theory (or "maturity" theory)"the most effective leadership progresses with time through the four quadrants”High Initiating Structure, Low ConsiderationHigh Initiating Structure, High ConsiderationLow Initiating Structure, High ConsiderationLow Initiating Structure, Low Consideration
15Situational Approaches Contingency theory 3/25/2017Situational Approaches Contingency theoryThe manager must develop a reward system, a leadership style, or an organizational structure to be appropriate for the unique combination of such factors asthe nature of the subordinates,the technology of the business and the tasks that result,the rate of change in the organization,the degree of integration of functions required,the amount of time the manager has to accomplish the assignment,the quality of the manager's relationship with subordinates.
163/25/2017Leadership Continuum"a continuum of leadership style extending from complete retention of power by the manager to complete freedom for subordinates"Autocratic ("Telling"). Manager makes decisions with little or no involvement of non-managers.Diplomatic ("Selling). Manager makes decisions without consultation but tries to persuade non-managers to accept them.Consultative ("Consulting"). Manager obtains non-managers' ideas and uses them in decision making.Participative ("Joining"). Manager involves non-managers heavily in the decision (and may even delegate it to them completely).
17Leadership continuum (cont.) 3/25/2017Leadership continuum (cont.)3 deciding forces:Forces in the managerForces in the subordinate (or non-manager).Forces in the situation.
183/25/2017Servant LeadershipPractical philosophy which supports people who choose to serve first,Then lead as a way of expanding service to individuals and institutions.
19Other viewpoints: 14 types of executives by their behavior 3/25/2017Other viewpoints: 14 types of executives by their behavior"merely successful" (Table 7-3)BureaucratZealotMachiavellianMissionaryClimberExploiterTemporizerGlad-Hander
20Other viewpoints: 14 types of executives by their behavior 3/25/2017Other viewpoints: 14 types of executives by their behavior"effective leaders" (Table 7-4)EntrepreneurCorporateurDeveloperCraftsmanIntegratorGamesman
213/25/2017True Leader"A leader is best when people barely know he exists. Not so good when people obey and acclaim him. Worse when they despise him. But of a good leader who talks little, when his work is done and his aim fulfilled, they will say, "We did it ourselves."-- Lao Tsu, 600 B.C.
22Motive & Motivation Definition of Motive: 3/25/2017Motive & MotivationDefinition of Motive:“An inner state that energizes, activates, or moves, and that directs or channels behavior toward goals.”– Berelson & SteinerDefinition of Motivation:“The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.” – Robbins“3 measures of resulting behavior: direction, strength, and persistence” – Campbell
23Nature of the Individuals 3/25/2017Nature of the IndividualsMcGregor's Theory X and Theory Y (2 assumptions about basic nature)
24Nature of the Individuals 3/25/2017Nature of the Individuals"Theory X":Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise--money, materials, equipment, people--in the interest of economic ends.With respect to people, this is a process of directing their efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization.Without this active intervention by management, people would be passive--even resistant to organization needs. They must therefore be persuaded, rewarded, punished, controlled--their activities must be directed. This is management's task....
25Nature of the Individuals 3/25/2017Nature of the IndividualsAdditional beliefs of "Theory X":The average person is by nature indolent—he/she works as little as possible.He/She lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be led.He/She is inherently self-centered, indifferent to organizational needs.He/She is by nature resistant to change.He/She is gullible, not very bright, the ready dupe of the charlatan and the demagogue.
263/25/2017"Theory Y"Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise--money, materials, equipment, people--in the interest of economic ends.People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations.
273/25/2017"Theory Y"The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity for assuming responsibility, the readiness to direct behavior toward organization goals are all present in people. Management does not have to put them there. It is the responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves.The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives.
28“Theory X” v.s. “Theory Y” 3/25/2017“Theory X” v.s. “Theory Y”“Theory X places exclusive reliance upon external control of human behavior, while Theory Y relies heavily on self-control and self-direction. It is worth noting that this difference between treating people as children and treating them as adults.”--McGregor
29Motivation Theories: Content Theories: Process Theories: 3/25/2017Motivation Theories:Content Theories:Based on human needs and people’s effort to satisfy themMaslow's hierarchy of needsHerzberg's 2-factor theoryMcClelland’s Trio of NeedsProcess Theories:Assumes that behavioral choices are based on expected outcomesEquity Theory (Adams)Expectancy Theory (Vroom)Porter-Lawler ExtensionBehavior Modification (Skinner)
303/25/2017Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (The appearance of one need usually rests upon the prior satisfaction of another.)Physiological needs: air, water, food, shelter, sexSafety needs: safe work, with security that the physiological needs will continue to be met (through job tenure and medical, unemployment, and disability insurance and retirement provisions)Love needs: affectionate relations with friends, family, and people in general, and group acceptanceEsteem needs: self-respect or self-esteem, and the esteem of others (expressed in reputation, prestige, and recognition)Self-actualization (or self-fulfillment) needs: the desire to become everything one is capable of becoming (to become actualized in what one is potentially)
31Herzberg's 2-factor Theory 3/25/2017Herzberg's 2-factor TheoryThe growth or motivator factors that are intrinsic to the job are [in order of decreasing importance]: achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility, and growth or advancement.The dissatisfaction-avoidance or hygiene factors that are extrinsic to the job include [also in order of decreasing importance]: company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status, and security.
32Applications of Herzberg's 2-factor Theory 3/25/2017Applications of Herzberg's 2-factor TheoryJob Enrichment: To increase the content of motivators in a job.Reducing the number and frequency of controlsMaking the worker responsible for checking his/her own workEstablishing a direct relationship between worker and the customer (internal or external)Increasing authority and autonomy
33McClelland’s Trio of Needs (Different people have different needs) 3/25/2017McClelland’s Trio of Needs (Different people have different needs)Need for achievement: the drive or desire to excel, to accomplish something better than has been done in the past. (entrepreneurs)Need for power: the desire to control one’s environment, including resources and people. (managers)Need for affiliation: the need for human companionship and acceptance. (coordinators, integrators, counselors, and sales)
343/25/2017Process Theories:Process theories treat human needs as just one part of the mechanism that people use in choosing their behavior. These theories place greater emphasis on the expectation of favorable consequences or rewards.
353/25/2017A. Equity Theory“People want to be treated fairly relative to the treatment of others.”Input/outcome ratio:Inputs: person’s contribution to the organization (education, experience, ability, effort, and loyalty)Outcomes: pay, promotion, recognition, and social relationships
36B. Expectancy Theory Environment Effort Performance Outcome Ability 3/25/2017B. Expectancy TheoryEnvironmentEffortPerformanceOutcomeAbilityValence of OutcomesEffort to Performance ExpectancyPerformance to Outcome Expectancy
37B. Expectancy Theory Effort-to-performance expectancy 3/25/2017B. Expectancy TheoryEffort-to-performance expectancyPerformance-to-outcome expectancyValence: Strength of a person’s desire for these outcomes
38C. Porter-Lawler Extension 3/25/2017C. Porter-Lawler ExtensionPersonal effort, abilities and traits, and role perceptions (the employee's belief that certain tasks need to be done to do his or her job effectively) determine performance.Performance, in turn, leads to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, as in the expectancy model.The perceived equity (fairness) of these rewards determines the satisfaction the employee gains from the work.This satisfaction colors the value placed on the rewards anticipated for future cycles of work, and therefore it influences future effort.
39D. Behavior Modification (Reinforcement Theory) 3/25/2017D. Behavior Modification (Reinforcement Theory)Behavior is followed by an event (reinforcement) that affects the probability that the behavior is repeated.Positive reinforcement increases the probability that desired behavior will be repeated by providing a reward (praise, recognition, raise, promotion, or other).Negative reinforcement, or avoidance, seeks to increase the probability that desired behavior will be repeated by letting the employee escape from undesired consequences.Punishment seeks to decrease the probability that undesired behavior will be repeated by imposing penalties (undesired consequences) such as reprimands, discipline, or fines.Extinction seeks to decrease the probability that undesired behavior will be repeated by ignoring it and withholding positive reinforcement.
40Motivating And Leading Technical Professionals 3/25/2017Motivating And Leading Technical ProfessionalsGeneral Nature of the Technical ProfessionalHaving a high need for achievement and deriving their motivation primarily from the work itself.Desiring autonomy (independence) over the conditions, pace, and content of their work.Tending to identify first with their profession and secondarily with their company.Seeking to maintain their expertise, gained through long and arduous study, and stave off obsolescence through continuing education.
41Motivation Factors for Engineers 3/25/2017Motivation Factors for EngineersType of work, interesting, diversified (45.0%)Salary (33.9%)Location, good place to live, family (31.2%)Opportunity for advancement (29.8%)Challenge, more responsibility, chance to use creative ability (16.9%)Reputation, prestige of company (13.7%)Working conditions, personnel policies (11.7%)Growing organization, growing field (6.9%)Security, retirement plan, benefits (6.8%)Opportunity to learn, broaden experience, training programs (6.6%)
42Leading Technical Professionals 3/25/2017Leading Technical ProfessionalsDimensions of technical leadershipCoach for peak performanceRun organizational interferenceOrchestrate professional developmentExpand individual productivity through teamworkFacilitate self-management
43Leading Technical Professionals 3/25/2017Leading Technical ProfessionalsLeading as orchestration -- McCallTechnical competence.Controlled freedom.Leader as metronome.Work challenge.