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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART D 7 The Nervous System

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Spinal Nerves There is a pair of spinal nerves at the level of each vertebrae for a total of 31 pairs Formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord Named for the region from which they arise

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Spinal Nerves Figure 7.25a

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Anatomy of Spinal Nerves Spinal nerves divide soon after leaving the spinal cord Dorsal ramiserve the skin and muscles of the posterior trunk Ventral ramiform a complex of networks (plexus) for the anterior

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: The Spinal Nerves Figure 7.25b

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Spinal Nerve Plexuses Table 7.2 (1 of 2)

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Spinal Nerve Plexuses Table 7.2 (2 of 2)

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.26a PNS: Distribution of Major Peripheral Nerves of the Upper and Lower Limbs

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Distribution of Major Peripheral Nerves of the Upper and Lower Limbs Figure 7.26b

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Distribution of Major Peripheral Nerves of the Upper and Lower Limbs Figure 7.26c

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Autonomic Nervous System Motor subdivision of the PNS Consists only of motor nerves Also known as the involuntary nervous system Regulates activities of cardiac and smooth muscles and glands Two subdivisions Sympathetic division Parasympathetic division

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Differences Between Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems Nerves Somatic: one motor neuron Autonomic: preganglionic and postganglionic nerves Effector organs Somatic: skeletal muscle Autonomic: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Differences Between Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems Neurotransmitters Somatic: always use acetylcholine Autonomic: use acetylcholine, epinephrine, or norepinephrine

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems Figure 7.27

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Anatomy of the Sympathetic Division Originates from T 1 through L 2 Ganglia are at the sympathetic trunk (near the spinal cord) Short pre-ganglionic neuron and long post- ganglionic neuron transmit impulse from CNS to the effector Norepinephrine and epinephrine are neurotransmitters to the effector organs

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.28 PNS: Anatomy of the Autonomic Nervous System

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Sympathetic Pathways Figure 7.29

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Anatomy of the Parasympathetic Division Originates from the brain stem and S 1 through S 4 Terminal ganglia are at the effector organs Always uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Autonomic Functioning Sympatheticfight or flight Response to unusual stimulus Takes over to increase activities Remember as the E division Exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PNS: Autonomic Functioning Parasympathetichousekeeping activites Conserves energy Maintains daily necessary body functions Remember as the D division digestion, defecation, and diuresis

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 7.3 (1 of 2) Effects of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of the ANS

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Effects of the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions of the ANS Table 7.3 (2 of 2)

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Development Aspects of the Nervous System The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Development Aspects of the Nervous System No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult


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