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Major Literary Movements. British Literary Movements 450-1066 : Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) Period 1066-1500 : Middle English Period 1500-1660 : The.

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Presentation on theme: "Major Literary Movements. British Literary Movements 450-1066 : Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) Period 1066-1500 : Middle English Period 1500-1660 : The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Literary Movements

2 British Literary Movements : Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) Period : Middle English Period : The Renaissance : Elizabethan Age : Jacobean Age : Caroline Age : Commonwealth Period (or Puritan Interregnum) : The Neoclassical Period : The Restoration : The Augustan Age (or Age of Pope) : The Age of Sensibility (or Age of Johnson) : The Romantic Period : The Victorian Period : The Pre-Raphaelites : Aestheticism and Decadence : The Edwardian Period : The Georgian Period : The Modern Period 1945-present : Postmodern Period


4 Old English or The Anglo-Saxon Period Theme: Heroes and Heroism British Legends

5 Importance 1.Oral History—Lessons and entertainment 2.British folktale 3.Anglo Saxon time period

6 Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? Between 800 and 600 B.C., two groups of Celts from southern Europe invaded the British Isles. –Brythons (now spelled “Britons”) settled on the largest Island, Britain. –Gaels, settled on the second largest island, known to us as Ireland.

7 Pre-Historical/Pre-Roman The island we know as England - occupied by a race of people called the Celts. One of the tribes was called Brythons or Britons (where we get the term Britain).

8 Free powerpoint template: 8 Pre-historical/Pre-Roman (con’t) Celts were pagans - believed in “animism,” from the Latin word spirits Druids were their priests –Role: Go between the gods and the people

9 The Celts –farmers and hunters –organized themselves into clans –clans had fearsome loyalty to chieftains –looked to priests, known as Druids, to settle their disputes

10 Roman conquest of Britain AD 43 –Britain annexed as a province in the Roman Empire –Difficult to control such a large piece of land Brought Christianity to Britain around AD 300 –Pagan vs. Christian themes throughout; never fully indoctrinated at this time The last Romans left around 407 A.D. –Needed to defend against rebelling European countries; England left to its own devices Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from?

11 449AD –3 Germanic tribes (Angles, Saxons, and Jutes) invade. Destruction of Roman influence, including Christianity New land: “Angle-land” - small tribal kingdoms - no written language - supported themselves through farming and hunting

12 Anglo Saxon King and Warrior early 7 th century

13 An Anglo-Saxon Hall

14 An Anglo-Saxon Farmstead West Stow: reconstructed village

15 Sutton Hoo Burial site discovered in 1939 Important links to Anglo- Saxon world and Beowulf Remains of a boat were discovered and large burial chamber containing numerous artifacts Artifacts suggest a distinctly Christian element intermingled with pagan ritual.

16 The Reemergence of Christianity 596 AD: attempt to convert Anglo- Saxons to Christianity 597 AD: Saint Augustine –converted King Ethelbert of Kent to Christianity. –set up a monastery in Canterbury in Kent. 650 AD: most of England is Christian; some hold on to previous beliefs –The church provided counsel to quarreling rulers in efforts to unify the English people. At this time, the British Isles were not unified and included separate kingdoms with separate rulers. They fought continuously over the fertile, green land.

17 Constant Conflict 9 th Century: –Norway invaded Northumbria (Anglo-Saxon kingdom in northern and central England), Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. –The Danes of Denmark targeted eastern and southern England

18 Alfred the Great King of Wessex —resisted Danish intrusion and earned “the great” title –Saxons acknowledged Danish rule in East and North –Danes respected Saxon rule in South End of 10 th Century—Danes want to widen Danelaw –Forced Saxons to select Danish Kings 1042—Kingship returned to Alfred the Great’s descendent Edward Edward the Confessor died in –His death led to the end of the Anglo-Saxon Period.

19 Literature of Anglo-Saxon Times 2 major influences 1) Germanic Traditions of the Anglo-Saxons 2) Christian Traditions of the Roman Church

20 1) Germanic Traditions of the Anglo-Saxons Germanic language – Mixture of various Germanic dialects + Old English – Old English (often looks like a foreign language)

21 Beowulf Beowulf was written in the Anglo-Saxon era. Around the year 525. Literature was transmitted orally instead of in writing. –Runic alphabet did exist - only used for inscriptions. –Beowulf was result of storytelling

22 Page of Beowulf manuscript in Old English Listen to me!

23 Language in Transition “Middle Ages” Around the year 1000, Old English pronunciation changed when distinct vowel sounds at the ends of words were being dropped. Middle English differed from Old English in its greater reliance upon fewer plural forms.

24 Language in Transition “Middle Ages” Middle English was a more analytical language. Stressed word order/syntax Incorporated “function” words—verbs

25 French Invade England October of 1066  Leading Normandy was Duke William or “William the Conqueror”, who defeated and killed the last Anglo-Saxon king. This was the beginning of the Norman Conquest.

26 Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest radically changed: English History English Character English Language

27 William the Conqueror is known for three accomplishments: 1.Creating the Domesday Book which was an inventory of every piece of property in England. 2.Bringing the French language to England  Creating a bilingual society  Upper-Class: spoke French  Lower-Class: spoke English 3. Social System known as Feudalism

28 Feudalism & Knighthood Feudalism  Religious concept of hierarchy. GOD KINGBARON VASSAL KNIGHTSSERFS

29 2 Major impacts on England as a result of the Feudal System: Form and Manners  Form—better known as knighthood.  The institution of knighthood was firmly based on the ideas of loyalty.  We will see this clearly in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. He is honor-bound to accept a challenge that he knows could bring death.

30 2 nd major impact that the feudal system had on England:  Manners Code of Chivalry—Courtly Love  A system of ideas and behavior codes that governed both knight and gentlewoman.

31 Three aspects that make up the Code of Chivalry 1.Loyalty to Lord  Your oath, honor, and respect went directly to your lord. 2. Warfare Rule  Idea of Fairness 3. Courtly Love  Men--mostly the knights-- idolized women. They would show this by wearing the colors of their lady in battle, to glorify her. This love for a woman was thought to make the knight a better fighter. They were inspired by women.

32 ROMANCE Courtly Love provided ‘built-in’ drama for a poet or storyteller. It brought about the form of literature known as a ROMANCE: a medieval story in verse form in which a brave knight must overcome great danger for the love of a noble lady or higher idea.

33 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight  Composed around 1370  An unknown author transformed the popular romance into great art.  An alliterative romance poem. (Legend)  Basic narrative pattern of a romance: 1.Hero 2.Quest—in which the hero undertakes a perilous journey in search of something of great value. 3.Supernatural event

34 Sir Gawain & the Green Knight In Sir Gawain you will see the pull of sexual temptation and of life in the medieval castle. Gawain is the model of the chivalric hero whose character is being tested on: Courage Fidelity Morality

35 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Purpose of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: teach us a moral lesson. Theme: To achieve nobility human beings must rely on the constant practice of a number of virtues such as: »Courage »Honesty »Self-sacrifice

36  Setting (time) The mythical past of King Arthur’s Court.  Setting (place) Camelot; the wilderness; Bertilak’s castle; the Green Chapel.  Motifs The seasons; games Sir Gawain & the Green Knight

37 Warrior vs. Knight Warrior –Brave –Male –Physically strong Knowledgeable offensive Codes they lived by… loyalty to tribal king personal commitment Boasting was acceptable Knight –Brave –Male –Physically strong Knowledgeable/Educated defensive Codes they lived by… feudalism code of chivalry Knights were expected to be humble before others; boasting was not acceptable.

38 Geoffrey Chaucer c Considered the father of English poetry Wrote in the vernacular Served as a soldier, government servant, and member of Parliament Introduced iambic pentameter First writer buried in Westminster Abbey Learn more about Chaucer. Go to...

39 Things you need to know for the Canterbury Tales: Iambic pentameter Pilgrimage Satire Fabliau Exemplum –Intro –Prologue –Pardoner’s Tale –Wife of Bath

40 The Canterbury Tales: Snapshot of an Age It frames a story of characters on a religious pilgrimage to Canterbury. The characters are a concise portrait of an entire nation. The pilgrimage is a quest narrative that moves from images of spring and awakening to penance, death, and eternal life. The characters tell stories that reflect “everyman” in the universal pilgrimage of life.

41 The Travelers to Canterbury Working Class PlowmanReeveHostCookMiller HaberdasherDyerCarpenterWeaverCarpetmaker

42 The Travelers to Canterbury Professional Class MilitaryReligiousSecular Knight, Squire, Yeoman Nun, 3 Priests, Friar, Parson, Pardoner, Summoner Cleric, Serjeant at Law, Merchant, Skipper, Doctor

43 The Travelers to Canterbury Upper Class Wife of BathFranklin

44 Le Morte D’Arthur Sir Thomas Malory

45 Who was Malory? Thomas Malory of Newbold Revel, Warwickshire –Born about 1415; died in 1470 –1450: crime spree (murder, theft, extortion, rape) –1460: released from prison; active in civil war –1467: back in prison for being on the losing side –Wrote Le Morte D’Arthur in prison, and it was published by William Caxton in 1485

46 15 th Century England Wars of the Roses ( ) –Lancastrians vs. Yorkists –Decades of civil war Changes in battle technology –Longbow –Man in armor on horse no longer defensible –Kings would no longer lead followers into battle after Richard’s defeat

47 Who was King Arthur? Celtic origins: –Arthwyr as general term for a prince –Name may also derive from the Celtic word “art,” meaning bear (Arturus the Bear) –Others argue that he was Octha, son of Hengest, who moved south and united much of the area –Earliest stories represent him as a god-like creature interacting with other deities in Welsh mythology –Welsh claims also based on his birth at Tintagel and burial at Glastonbury Alternately, High King of Britain with his origins in Brittany (Geoffrey of Monmouth)

48 Why would Malory choose King Arthur? Arthur brought order out of chaos Warfare as form of sport vs. warfare as technology aimed at widespread devastation Men heroically die in single combat, but are not slaughtered as they lie in the mud Imaginary past in which nobles had absolute power over contented peasants Hero/King who will return to bring peace

49 Le Morte D’Arthur: Cultural Conflicts The stability of the society as a whole –Government by contract between ruler and community of nobles and commons –Rule of law within class system The motivations of individuals –Personal goals –Courtly love –The will to power




53 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: The Elizabethan Age Christopher Marlowe

54 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: The Elizabethan Age Edmund Spenser

55 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: The Elizabethan Age Ben Johnson

56 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: The Jacobean Age Metaphysical POETS John DONNE

57 ENGLISH RENAISSANCE: The Caroline Age Metaphysical POETS John MILTON


59 Neoclassical Period: The AUGUSTAN AGE: ALEXANDER POPE



62 ROMANTICISM The AGE of REVOLUTION: William Blake William Wordsworth S.T. Coleridge G. G. Byron Percy B. Shelley John Keats Jane Austen

63 ROMANTICISM The AGE of REVOLUTION: Samuel Taylor Coleridge

64 ROMANTICISM The AGE of REVOLUTION: Lord George Gordon Byron

65 Victorian Period Charles Dickens The Bröntes Charlotte – Jane Eyre Emily – Wuthering Heights Anne – Agnes Grey George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) Robert Browning Lord Tennyson Thomas Hardy

66 Victorian Period Robert Browning

67 Victorian Period George B. Shaw

68 Victorian Period William B. Yeats

69 Victorian Period D.H. Lawrence

70 Victorian Period T. S. Eliot

71 Virginia WoolfJames Joyce 1941, the year in which Irish novelist James Joyce and English novelist Virginia Woolf both died, is sometimes used as a rough boundary for postmodernism's start.

72 Post-war developments in literature (such as the Theatre of the Absurd, the Beat Generation, and Magic Realism) POST-WAR LITERATURE Samuel Beckett William S. Burroughs

73 MAGIC REALISM Thomas Bernhard, Peter Handke, John Fowles, Angela Carter, John Banville, John Fowles Angela Carter

74 Margaret Atwood Ian McEwan David Mitchell The Handmaid's Tale (1985) is perhaps Atwood's best known novel and emblematic of the social criticism (Canadian) British writer Ian McEwan started winning literary awards with his first book, First Love, Last Rites (1976) and never stopped. Atonement (2002) won several awards and is being made into a movie, and Saturday (2005) won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. In his first novel, Ghostwritten (1999), he uses nine narrators to tell the story and 2004's Cloud Atlas is a novel comprised of six interconnected stories ENGLISH & AMERICAN WRITERS TODAY

75 Zadie SmithKazuo Ishiguro In his first novel, An Artist of the Floating World (1986), Ishiguro explored the world of post World War II Japanese society. Guildford, Surrey, England She wrote her first novel, White Teeth, while still at Cambridge and published it after graduation in In 2002, Smith published The Autograph Man. On Beauty (2005) In 2009, Smith published Changing My Mind

76 American Literary Movements : Colonial Period : The Revolutionary Age : The Early National Period : The Romantic Period (Also known as: The American Renaissance or The Age of Transcendentalism) : The Realistic Period : The Naturalistic Period : American Modernist Period 1920s : Jazz Age, Harlem Renaissance 1920s, 1930s : The "Lost Generation" 1939-present : The Contemporary Period 1950s : Beat Writers 1960s, 1970s : Counterculture Ethnic Literatures, including, but not limited to: –African-American Writers Hispanic Writers –Native American Writers Asian-American Writers

77 American Literary Timeline  Colonial Period  Age of Reason  Romanticism Transcendentalism Anti-Transcendentalism  Realism Naturalism Regionalism  Modernism  Contemporary

78 Pre-Colonial/ Native American [  1600] CHARACTERISTICS 1 ST Americans Creation & Origin Myths Legends Storytelling Oral Tradition

79 Early Colonial Literature (Puritan) [ ] CHARACTERISTICS Sermons Personal Narratives Plain Style Authority of Bible & church

80 Colonial Period Early America-1776 Puritanism Puritans definition of good writing was writing that brought home a full awareness of the importance of worshipping God and of the spiritual dangers that the soul faced on Earth, and the literature that was produced by the Puritans reflected this.

81 EARLY COLONIAL HISTORY PURITAN Person’s fate determined by God All are corrupt & must be saved by Christ Settlement of British Colonies in America

82 EARLY COLONIAL PURITAN WRITERS William Bradford Mary Rowlandson Jonathan Edwards Anne Bradstreet

83 William Bradford ( ) He was elected governor of Plymouth shortly after the pilgrims landed in on Plymouth Rock. He was essentially the first historian of the new colonies. His participation in the voyage of the Mayflower and being governor made him the ideal person for this job. He wrote Of Plymouth Plantation in Colonial Period

84 Anne Bradstreet (c ) The first publication of a book of poems in America, was also the first publication by a woman in America. She also wrote The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America in Colonial Period

85 Edward Taylor (c ) Taylor was a Minister who studied at Harvard College, and whose works were never published by Taylor. They were discovered in 1930s. He wrote “Huswifery” and “Upon a Spider catching a Fly.” Colonial Period

86 COLONIAL (Age of Reason) [ ] CHARACTERISTICS Political pamphlets Ornate Style Persuasive Writing Patriotism

87 Age of Reason or Rationalism Late 1770s to Early 1800s This period was a time when authors were focused more on their own reasoning rather than simply taking what the church taught as fact. During this period there was also cultivation of patriotism. The main medium during that period were political pamphlets, essays, travel writings, speeches, and documents. Also during this period many reforms were either made or requested, for instance during this time the Declaration of Independence was written.

88 COLONIAL AGE OF REASON Revolutionary War Instructive in values

89 COLONIAL AGE OF REASON WRITERS Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Franklin Thomas Paine Patrick Henry

90 Abigail Adams ( ) She wrote letters that campaigned for women’s rights. Her grandson, Charles Francis Adams, published The Familiar Letters of John Adams and His Wife Abigail During the Revolution, which were just what they said they were, letters written by Abigail and her husband. Age of Reason

91 Benjamin Franklin ( ) Franklin is well known worldwide for his discoveries in the world of science and his theories on electricity. He is known for his autobiography and considered the Father of the Autobiography. He wrote aphorisms in Poor Richard’s Almanac. Age of Reason

92 Thomas Jefferson ( ) Jefferson is best know for writing the Declaration of Independence; the document came about as a response to the times. People were thinking for themselves, and one of the major idea the Americans discovered was that they didn’t need England. So Jefferson wrote the document to formally state the colonies’ intent to form a new nation. Age of Reason

93 Thomas Paine ( ) Paine wrote mostly pamphlets that would spur ideas and immediate action. In the document "The American Crisis," Paine wrote about the oppression that America suffered from Britain, and propelled America into a war with Britain. Paine, to this day, is well known for his propaganda. Age of Reason

94 Romanticism After the “Age of Reason” came to an end, the people of America were tired of reality; they wanted to see life as more than it was. This was the Era of Romantics. The main medium that presented itself at that time were short stories, poems, and novels. During this era, as appose to the “Age of Reason” the imagination dominated; intuition ruled over fact, and there was a large emphasis on the individual/common man, and on nature or the natural world. Dark Romanticism or Gothic literature was also introduced at this time, which is a sub-genre of Romanticism, this genre included stories about characters that had both good and evil traits. Gothic literature also incorporated to use of supernatural elements.


96 ROMANTICISM HISTORY Expansion of magazines, np, and book publishing Slavery debates Industrial Revolution: “old ways” of doing things are now irrelevant

97 ROMANTICISM WRITERS William Cullen Bryant Paul Laurence Dunbar Nathaniel Hawthorne Emily Dickinson

98 James Fenimore Cooper ( ) Free powerpoint template: 98 Cooper was greatly influenced throughout his life by his natural surroundings. Cooper also wrote a five-novel series called the Leatherstocking Tales: the stories are The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). He is the Father of the American Hero. Cooper was greatly influenced throughout his life by his natural surroundings. Cooper also wrote a five-novel series called the Leatherstocking Tales: the stories are The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). He is the Father of the American Hero.

99 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ( ) Member of the “Fireside Poets” Longfellow's poems are also highly regular in their form. Easy to read and memorable Composed “Song of Hiawatha”, “Paul Revere’s Ride” “Psalm of Life” “The Day Is Done ” Free powerpoint template: 99

100 William Cullen Bryant ( ) Free powerpoint template: 100 Composed “To a Waterfowl” and “Thanatopsis” One of the founders of the Republican party and supporter of Lincoln

101 Dark Romantics Dark Romantics focused on the limitations of mankind, and its potential destructiveness of the human spirit. For instance, water brings life, but it’s excess, i.e. a flood, can bring death and destruction. (Notice how they sometimes use nature in their writings to reflect what goes in with humans. Example: Scarlet Letter and the forest – reflect Pearl’s wild nature; only place Hester and Dimmesdale can be free, etc.)

102 DARK ROMANTICISM [ ] CHARACTERISTICS Self is the only thing that can be known or verified. The focus on the tragic. The belief in sin and evil. An attention paid to the mysteries of life. A reverence for human nature, and all its struggles.

103 DARK ROMANTICISM [ ] CHARACTERISTICS Symbolism Sin, Pain, & Evil Free powerpoint template: 103

104 DARK ROMANTICISM DARK ROMANTIC WRITERS Edgar Allan Poe Herman Melville Washington Irving

105 Washington Irving ( ) Irving was the first “famous” American author; he’s also known as the “Father of American Literature.” He wrote travel books, short stories, and satires. Some of his works include: Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Rip Van Winkle, and Devil and Tom Walker. Romanticism

106 Edgar Allen Poe ( ) Poe had a bad childhood that made him despise the world, and his works reflected his work. He is credited for creating the modern short story, and the detective story. He also challenged two long- standing theories, one, a poem had to be long, and two, a poem had to teach you something. Some of his works include, "The Raven", "Bells", "Annabel Lee", and "Dream." Romanticism

107 Nathaniel Hawthorne ( ) Hawthorne was a Puritan who utilized his writings to express his dark, and gloomy outlook on life. Some of his works include; Twice Told Tales, published in 1837; The Scarlet Letter, published in 1850; and The House of the Seven Gables, published in Anti-TranscendentalismRomanticism

108 Herman Melville ( ) In his time Melville was not entirely recognized, however, in the more recent years he has been considered one of the most top rated novelist of all time. He is most well known for his epic novel Moby Dick. RomanticismAnti-Transcendentalism

109 TRANSCENDENTALISM CHARACTERISTICS TRANSCENDENTALISM [ ] “American Renaissance” Self-Reliance Individualism Inner-Light Idealist Utopia Intuition

110 TRANSCENDENTALISM TRANSCENTDENTALISM WRITERS Ralph Waldo Emerson Henry David Thoreau Ambrose Alcott

111 Transcendentalism This movement pushed America from the elaborate and fantasy like writings displayed in the period Romanticism, into a period of literature that stressed individualism, and mature and self-reliance. Often Transcendentalists used nature to gain knowledge or to return to a life of self-reliance and individualism. It also stressed the fundamental idea of a unity between God and the world, that each person was a microcosm for the world..

112 Ralph Waldo Emerson ( ) Emerson had a strong sense of a religious mission though he was accused of subverting Christianity. He left the church saying, “to be a good minister, it was necessary to leave the church.” Some of his mayor works include Nature and Self-Reliance published in Transcendentalism

113 Henry David Thoreau ( ) Thoreau Lived his life, to do just that, live his life. He was never rich and for the most part lived with little money all his life. His work he is most well known for is Walden, published in Transcendentalism

114 REALISM/ REGIONALISM/ NATURALISM HISTORY [ ] Civil War & post Civil War Influence of Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx & Charles Darwin Demand for “truer” type of lit. that does not idealize people or places

115 REALISM [ ] CHARACTERISTICS Real-life, Every-day events Minute Details Objective Narrator Open Interpretation Slave Narratives

116 REALISM life presented with fidelity fidelity in presenting the inner workings of the mind the analysis of thought and feeling set in present or recent past commonplace characters exposed political corruption, economic inequity, business deception, the exploitation of labor, women rights problems, racial inequity described the relationship between the economic transformation of America and its moral condition

117 REALISM WRITERS Walt Whitman Ambrose Bierce Stephen Crane Frederick Douglas

118 Theodore Dreiser ( ) One of Dreiser's favorite fictional devices was the use of contrast between the rich and the poor, the urbane and the unsophisticated, and the power brokers and the helpless. Some of his works include: Twelve Men, published in 1919; A Book About Myself, published in 1922; The Color of a Great City, published in 1923; An American Tragedy, published in Naturalism

119 James Henry ( ) His father was an important theorist and lecturer, and his older brother was a famous American philosopher, William James. He attended Harvard College. His early stories depict the leisurely life of the well-to-do. In his time he wrote many short stories including: “The Short Story of a Year,” published in 1865; “Gabrielle de Bergerac,” published in 1869; and “Guest's Confession.” Realism

120 REGIONALISM [ ] CHARACTERISTICS Focuses on characters, dialect, customs, topography, and other features specific to a certain region (eg. the South) Coincided with Realism and sharing many of the same traits. Prominent from

121 REGIONALISM WRITERS Mark Twain Sarah Orne Jewett Willa Cather Kate Chopin Edith Wharton

122 Mark Twain [Samuel Clemens] ( ) Twain is know by many as the greatest American humorist and one of our greatest novelists. He was known for using vernacular, exaggeration, and deadpan narrator to create humor. Twain wrote many great novels including, the Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Prince and the Pauper.. Realism

123 Sarah Orne Jewett ( ) Jewett grew up with books all around her, it was only fitting she grow up to be a writer. The early years of her life were much like the story she wrote in A Country Doctor. Some of her works include; Miss Tempy's Watchers, originally published in 1888; The Dulham Ladies, originally published in 1886; “A White Heron,” originally published in Realism

124 Willa Cather ( ) Cather has been called, one of the most interesting female writers in American literary history. She was a teacher, a journalist and a critic as well as a writer. She has a talent for presenting settings, and characters that are rich in language and imagery. She also won a Pulitzer Prize. Some of her works include: April Twilights, Death Comes for the Archbishop, My Antonia, and O Pioneers!, published in Regionalism

125 Kate Chopin ( ) Chopin loved literature as a child, and secluded herself in it after her grandmothers death. She never achieved much until 1884 when she finally decided to pursue a career in writing. Some of her writing included: "Desiree’s Baby," “Story of an Hour” and The Awakening. Regionalism

126 NATURALISM People are hapless victims of immutable natural laws. Naturalism is closely related to realism only it usually views the world in a darker perspective. Free will is an illusion Characters’ lives are shaped by forces they cannot control.


128 Stephen Crane ( ) Crane’s writing was known for attacking patriotism, individualism, and organized religion; it also confronted the meaninglessness of the world. His work was also very well known for its imagery and symbolism. The work he is most famous for Red Badge of Courage, which was set in the Civil War. Some of his other works include; The Open Boat, published in 1894; “An Episode of War,” originally published in Naturalism

129 Jack London ( ) London was born in San Francisco, California; he lived a hard life, switching from job to job for whatever money he could get, after his father abandoned him at a young age. He is one of the most highly acclaimed writers of all time; his stories of life and death struggles are vivid and engaging. Some of his works include; The Call of the Wild, published in 1903; White Fang, published in 1906; “Lost Face,” published in 1910; and “The Night Born,” published in Naturalism

130 MODERNISM HISTORY [ ] WWI & WWII “Jazz Age”/ “Roaring 20’s” Harlem Renaissance The Great Depression Karl Marx rise of youth culture

131 MODERNISM CHARACTERISTICS Pessimism “American Dream” Imagism Lost Generation Beat Generation Use of interior monologue & stream of consciousness Plays, Poetry, Novels

132 MODERNISM WRITERS F. Scott Fitzgerald Robert Frost T.S. Elliot John Steinbeck William Faulkner Langston Hughes W.E.B. DuBois Ezra Pound William Carlos Williams Arthur Miller*

133 William Faulkner ( ) He served in both the Canadian and the British Royal Air Force. He wrote most of his novel on a farm in Oxford, Mississippi. Some of his novels included; The Hamlet, Absalom Absalom, The Town, and The Mansion. Regionalism

134 Ernest Hemingway ( ) Hemingway won a Pulitzer Prize and Noble Peace Price for Literature. He used concise, direct, spare, objective, precise, rhythmic writing styles to create larger than life heroes, big game hunters, etc. Some of his works include: The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell To Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls. Modernism

135 F. Scott Fitzgerald ( ) Fitzgerald wrote about the times. In his novel The Great Gatsby, published in 1925, he wrote about the roaring twenties, a time when no one cared about the future and they had fun with what they had then. Some of his other works include: The Side of Paradise, and The Beautiful and the Damned. Modernism

136 John Steinbeck ( ) Steinbeck wrote about the both the pains and joys of life. The Grapes of Wrath, his most well known work told the story of families ring to survive and stay together during the depression. In other works like Tortilla Flat, Steinbeck wrote about the joys of life. Some of his other works include: East of Eden, and Of Mice and Men, and The Pearl. Modernism

137 Robert Frost ( ) America’s best known and most loved poet, Frost wrote his poems in a traditional verse form. He used the plain speech of rural New Englanders. Some of his works include: “Death of the Hired Man,” “Birches,” and “The Road Not Taken.” Modernism

138 HARLEM RENAISSANCE1920s Literary movement parallel to Modernism. It focused on African American thought and community. Civil rights and equality were major themes of Harlem Renaissance writing. During this period African Americans were for the first time recognized as artists, writers and musicians.

139 HARLEM RENAISSANCE WRITERS Langston Hughes W.E.B. DuBois Zora Neale Hurston Claude McKay Countee Cullen James Baldwin

140 Countee Cullen ( ) poet, novelist, playwright “Yet I Do Marvel” “Incident”

141 Claude McKay ( ) “If We Must Die” “America” photo by James L. AllenJames L. Allen

142 Langston Hughes ( ) “Dreams” “Harlem” “The Weary Blues”

143 Zora Neal Hurston ( ) Writer, Folklorist, Anthropologist Their Eyes Were Watching God

144 James Baldwin “My Dungeon Shook: Letter to My Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Emancipation” (1963) American novelist, essayist, playwright, poet and social critic.

145 Free powerpoint template: 145 Felt talented black students should get a classical education Felt it was wrong to expect citizens to “earn their rights” Founded the NAACP along with other black and white leaders W.E.B. DuBois

146 POST-MODERNISM/ CONTEMPORARY CHARACTERISTICS [1950  ] Mix of fantasy w/ non-fiction Media culture interprets values Narratives Anti-Heroes Emotion-Provoking Humorous Irony Storytelling Autobiographies Individual Isolation Social Issues (ethnic & feminist)

147 POST-MODERNISM/ CONTEMPORARY HISTORY Post WWII prosperity New century & millennium Space exploration Korean War Vietnam War Gulf War WTC/ 9-11 Iraqi War Advances in technology

148 Post Modernism/Contemporary 1950-present That’s exactly what has happened, there are more different types of writing being done at one time than at any other period in history; Fantasy, Fiction, Science Fiction, Horror, Political Writings, Romantics, Plays, & Poems, Anything And Everything.

149 POST-MODERNISM/ CONTEMPORARY WRITERS Thomas Pynchon Kurt Vonnegut Jr. Joseph Неllеr Arthur Miller Toni Morrison Sylvia Plath J.D. Salinger “Beat Poets” Maya Angelou Alice Walker

150 The End or is it? Free powerpoint template: 150

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