Presentation on theme: "Deafness and Hearing Loss"— Presentation transcript:
1Deafness and Hearing Loss Dickey-LaMoure Special Education UnitSpecial Thanks to Lisa Krueger
2The Prevalence and Incidence of Hearing Loss in the United States About 28 million people have a hearing lossOf these, 80% have an irreversible hearing loss. (NIDCD, 1989)Over 1 million children have a hearing loss. (U.S. Public Health Service, 1990)5% of children 18 and under have hearing loss. (US Dept of Health and Human Services, 1991)1 in every 1,000 infants has severe/profound hearing loss. (NIDCD, 1989)83 of every 1,000 children have an educationally significant hearing loss. (U.S. Public Health Service, 1990)
3The Prevalence and Incidence of Hearing Loss in the United States 7 of every 1000 school-age students bilateral hearing loss;of every 1000 have unilateral hearing lossThese may significantly interfere with education. (Berg, F.H. 1985)9 of every 1000 school age children experience severe to profound hearing loss, (Schein, J., and Delk, M. 1974)10 in 1000 school age students have permanent sensorineural hearing loss. (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 1993)Approximately 30% of children who are hard of hearing have a disability in addition to a hearing loss (Wolff, A.B., & Harkins, J.E. 1986)
4Anatomy of the Ear*Sound waves collect in the outer ear and move down the ear canal.*The eardrum vibrates; these vibrations pass along to the bones of the middle ear to the fluid in the inner ear.the eardrum (tympanic membrane), the hammer (malleus), the anvil (incus), the stirrup (stapes)*The vibrating fluid moves the nerve cells in the cochlea, which converts the vibrations into nerve signals.*These signals are then passed to the auditory (cochlear) nerve, and on to the brain which interprets the sound.
5The Audiogram An audiogram is a picture of your hearing. It is a graph of the softest sounds you can hear.The yellow banana shows where all the speech sounds are heard when speaking at a normal level.Frequency or pitch ranges from low sounds (125) to high sounds (8000).Intensity or decibels ranges soft sounds (a 20dB) to loud sounds (a jet 110 dB.
6The AudiogramThe softest sound you are able to hear is called your threshold.0-15 dB Normal16-25 dB Slight26-40 dB Mild41-55 dB Moderate56-70 dB Mod-Sev71-90 dB Severe91dB or > Profound
7The Audiogram X’s mark hearing in the left ear. O’s mark hearing in the right ear.By comparing the speech banana to this person’s hearing loss, we can get some information regarding this person's ability to hear speech.
8Conductive Hearing Loss Types of Hearing LossConductive Hearing LossA problem in the outer or middle ear. May be caused by:° Excessive ear wax° A perforated eardrum° Broken ossicle (middle ear bone)° Middle ear infection¹° Malformed or misshaped earMost are medically or surgically treatable3 types of hearing loss: conductive, sensori-neural, and mixed.If mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, then Rh incompatibility problems. Mixing of Rh negative and Rh positive blood will make the mother's body develop antibodies against the different Rh factor.¹ (most common)
9Conductive Hearing Loss Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss Types of Hearing LossConductive Hearing LossSensori-Neural Hearing LossA problem in the inner ear or auditory nerve. May be caused by:° Maternal or postnatal diseases° Rh factor° Genetic Syndromes° Heredity° Exposure to loud noisesLosses are permanent but are helped by hearing aids or cochlear implants3 types of hearing loss: conductive, sensori-neural, and mixed.If mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, then Rh incompatibility problems. Mixing of Rh negative and Rh positive blood will make the mother's body develop antibodies against the different Rh factor.
10Conductive Hearing Loss Sensori-Neural Hearing Loss Types of Hearing LossConductive Hearing LossSensori-Neural Hearing LossMixed Hearing LossA combination of the two.3 types of hearing loss: conductive, sensori-neural, and mixed.If mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, then Rh incompatibility problems. Mixing of Rh negative and Rh positive blood will make the mother's body develop antibodies against the different Rh factor.
11Levels of Hearing Loss Unilateral Mild Moderate Severe Profound Hearing loss in one ear.Symptoms:Difficulty locating the source of sounds,Problems understanding speech in some situations (distant speech or with background noise).UnilateralMildModerateSevereProfound
12Levels of Hearing Loss Unilateral Mild Moderate Severe Profound May cause you to miss 25-40% of the speech signalProblems with clarity.Symptoms:Problems understanding someone farther away than a normal distance for conversationProblems understanding with background noise.Problems understanding weak voices
13Levels of Hearing Loss Unilateral Mild Moderate Severe Profound May cause you to miss 50-75% of the speech signal.Symptoms:May hear at short distances and face-to-face, but problems if distance or visual cues changed.Problems hearing normal conversationsProblems hearing consonants in words.
14Levels of Hearing Loss Unilateral Mild Moderate Severe Profound Difficulty hearing in all situations.Speech is heard only if the speaker is talking loudly or at close range.May cause you to miss up to 100% of the speech signal.Symptoms:Inability to converse except under ideal circumstances (i.e., face-to-face, in quiet, and accompanied with speech reading).UnilateralMildModerateSevereProfound
15Levels of Hearing Loss Unilateral Mild Moderate Severe Profound Most extreme hearing loss.May not hear loud speech or any speech at all.Forced to rely on visual cues instead of hearing as your main method of communication.May include sign-language and/or speech reading (also commonly referred to as "lip reading").
16Hearing Aid StylesIn-the-Ear (ITE) for a variety of losses but not recommended for children.Behind-the-Ear (BTE) for users with a mild to a profound loss.In-the-Canal (ITC) for users w/ mild to moderate loss but not for children.Completely-in the-Canal (CIC) for users w/ mild to moderate loss but not for children.ITE, ITC, and CIC are not recommended for children due to the dexterity required. CICs also may not be used with older adults for the same reason.
17Hearing Aid Types Analog Programmable Digital Amplifies all sound, including background noise; User has a volume control to adjust the amount of amplificationAmplifies all sounds, but make soft sounds louder and loud sounds softer. Most automatically adjust volume.Programmable: A hearing health care professional (audiologist) connects the hearing instrument to a computer and sets a listening program in the hearing aid based upon the patient's hearing loss. These can have different "programs" for different listening environments, e.g., quiet, noisy, music listening, etc.Can be precisely programmed to match the patient's individual hearing loss, sometimes at each specific frequency/pitch. Better clarity, less circuit noise, faster processing of sound, and improved listening in noise. Adjusts volume automatically.
18Hearing aids will restore hearing to normal. Fact vs. Myth?Hearing aids will restore hearing to normal.Hearing aids are designed to aid a person's hearing that is still intact. Hearing aids cannot restore hearing nor can they cure your hearing problem. They help to get the most out of the hearing that is left and are only part of hearing rehabilitation. Hearing aids may need to be supplemented by auditory training.
19Effects of Hearing Loss on Communication and the Educational Impacts
20Effect on Communication Educational ImpactVocabulary develops more slowlyConcrete words ("cat" or "jump“) are easier than abstract words ("before“ or "after“)Function words ("the“ or "an“) are difficult.Words with multiple meanings are hard ("bank" can be a place to put money or the edge of a stream).Word meanings need to be taught (especially multiple meanings)Reading & writing skills develop more slowlyLimited comprehension due to difficulty with inferences/deductionsThe gap widens with ageChildren with hearing loss don’t catch up without intervention.
21Effect on Communication Educational ImpactSentence StructureChildren comprehend and produce shorter, simpler sentences;Have difficulty understand-ing and writing complex sentences (“The teacher whom I have for math was sick today.” );Often can’t hear word endings ("-s" or "-ed“) and misunderstand or misuse verb tense, plurals, subject-verb agreement, and possessives.Teacher should expand on what the student says (e.g. “medicine—you got some medicine for your cold?”)Peer comments and PA announcements need to be repeated.Frequent checks for understanding.
22Effect on Communication Educational ImpactSpeakingOften can’t hear “quiet” sounds ("s," "f," "t") & don’t use them. “Quiet” sounds carry up to 90% of word meanings (tense, plurals, possessives).Speech may be difficult to understand.May not hear their own voice;May speak too loudly or softly;May use a high pitch;Speech may sound mumbled because of poor stress, inflection, or rate of speaking.Delayed Spoken LanguageLost “listening time” (past and present) results in delayed speech, poor intelligibility and voice quality.Missed or Confused Sounds or WordsStudent may act as if he understands but doesn’t realize he missed critical sounds when words sound alike (vacation, invitation)
23Effect on Communication Educational ImpactLack of Incidental LearningLanguage acquisition is most critical between years; Most children with hearing loss are identified by age 2.90% of learning is incidental (absorbed or “over- heard” from the environment).Children with hearing loss miss out on much informationAcademic AchievementDifficulty with all academic areas (esp. reading & math).Achievement is related toparent involvement, andquantity, quality, and timing of support services received.Without intervention:Children with mild-moderate loss achieve 1-4 grade levels lower than peers.Children with severe-profound loss usually achieve skills no higher than 3rd-4th grade level.
24Effect on Communication Educational ImpactSocial FunctioningLanguage delays are tied to delays in social skills.Children with severe-profound loss feel isolated, without friends, unhappy in school (esp. if interaction with other children with hearing loss is limited).Social problems are more frequent in children with mild-moderate hearing loss than in those with severe-profound loss.Delayed Social Skills and Decreased Self-EsteemStudent may feel “different” because she wears hearing aids.Social skills need to be taught.Increased FatigueThe effort of listening and watching results in fatigue.This can lead to irritability or behavior problems.
25Communication Approaches Auditory-Oral Approach - trains the student to use speech and hearing abilities.Total Communication - uses combinations of speech, hearing, vision, speech-reading, signing, fingerspelling, reading, & writing.Sign Language - trains the student to use a visual mode of communication.Cued Speech - uses 8 different hand shapes (cues) to help the listener distinguish between sounds that look alike on the lips.
26Communication Do’s and Don’ts Speak normallyFace the person so he can read your lipsSpeak more slowlyUse shorter sentencesConfirm the message by repeating, rephrasing or writing it downDON’TExaggerate your wordsShout or mumbleLook the other wayMove around while speakingTalk too quicklyCover your mouth or speak with your mouth fullChange the subject without warningTalk in noisy or dark areas
27Techniques for Increasing Reading Comprehension Define new vocabulary;Provide a variety of reading material on similar subjects;Send the book home to review;Role play or act out the story;Provide hands-on activities using objects in the story;Discuss vocabulary/concepts prior to reading;Teach cognitive/language strategies to help understand the text;Outline major points of the story.Language strategies—prediction, compare/contrast, recall, sequencing, inferencing, etc.
28Language Remediation Techniques Give synonyms; use them in a sentence with parentheses (e.g.: What effect (outcome) will this red stain have on my mother’s white sofa?);Use negative definition (e.g.: cold—not hot);Use general terms to give specific meaning (e.g.: a type of walk—trot);Rewrite at a lower level to explain vocabulary context;Correctly model the student’s incorrect syntax;Use pictures or illustrations to show meaning;Put vocabulary in sentences to show its context;Dramatize the meaning of a concept.
29Classroom TipsUse preferential seating: near the front; better ear toward the teacher; away from noise; to the side (better view of classmates); light to their back; semicircle for group work;Get student’s attention before addressing him;Don’t talk while walking around the room;Identify student speakers;Get attn before addressing student—call their name so they focus in on the comment.Make sure face/mouth is visible—this gives the opportunity for speech reading. Also, don’t chew gum, put a pencil in your mouth, or cover your mouth.
30Classroom Tips Repeat peer comments & PA announcements; Use visual supports (pictures, charts, diagrams);Write announcements, instructions, vocabulary, assignments, on the board;Check for understanding by asking questions;Use captioned videos;Use transition phrases (“Let’s move on,” “Any questions?”).Get attn before addressing student—call their name so they focus in on the comment.Make sure face/mouth is visible—this gives the opportunity for speech reading. Also, don’t chew gum, put a pencil in your mouth, or cover your mouth.
31"What matters deafness of the ear, when the mind hears "What matters deafness of the ear, when the mind hears. The one true deafness, the incurable deafness, is that of the mind.“ Victor Hugo to Ferdinand Berthier, November 25, 1845For more information, click on one of the following links:Cochlear ImplantsEncouraging Young Children to Use LanguageDeaf Culture / Sign LanguageAssistive Listening DevicesBibliographyEnd Show
32Cochlear Implants What are they? Electrodes that are surgically implanted into the cochlea or inner ear with an external sound processor to stimulate the hearing (auditory) nerve with electrical current.
33Cochlear Implants What are they? How do they work? Hearing aids amplify sound;Cochlear implants compensate for damaged or non-functional parts of the inner ear.
34Cochlear Implants What are they? How do they work? What can they do? Cochlear implants do not restore or create normal hearing. They provide a sense of sound, give some auditory understanding of the environment, and help patients understand speech.
35Sign Language American Sign Language Signed English a manual language distinct from spoken English;Conceptual;Has its own syntax and grammar.Signed Englisha manual language that follows Englishuses signing or spells out each spoken word, including word endings.
36Deaf Culture “Deaf culture” vs. “deaf” Deaf disabled A capital "D" indicates a person who follows Deaf cultureA lowercase "d" refers to the physical nature of deafnessDeaf disabledIt is a different way of being.Not every deaf person adheres to the ideals of Deaf culture.
37Deaf Culture People who are deaf forming a community Not necessarily geographical;Held together by a common language: American Sign Language;People with shared experiences and common interests.Highlighted by a fierce sense of pride in a hard-won ability to overcome adversity.Positive Values:Fluency in ASL,Ability to tell stories wellVery strong sense of group loyaltyNegative values:Speech;Thinking like a hearing personNot every deaf person adheres to the ideals of Deaf culture.
38Deaf CultureMembers of the American Deaf community tend to intermarry;Many wish for a deaf child so they can pass on their heritage, values, and culture.Not every deaf person adheres to the ideals of Deaf culture.
39Encouraging Young Children to Use Language Encourage turn-taking:Pause after you say somethinggive the child an opportunity to respondDescribe what you and the child see, hear, & do as you engage in different activities;Use short, simple phrases;Talk about what will happen in the future.Label & explain objects or activities (“You have an apple; you have a red apple.”).
40Encouraging Young Children to Use Language Repeat what the child says; give a more acceptable way to say it or expand on it.Don’t correct a child in the middle of sharing an exciting experienceIf the child says “me go circus”, say “You went to a circus! Where was the circus? What did you see?”Watch the child; show interest in what they say.Play. Act out situations. Encourage the child to use imaginative settings (the moon, a bridge, in a car).
41Suggestions for Encouraging Young Children to Use Language Say things that keep a conversation goingGive the child a part of an task and encourage them to ask for the rest (crayons but no paper, hat & mittens but no coat).Use silly situations to encourage responses, (e.g., put their shoe on your foot, make pudding and stir in the box, give silly responses to their questions), but be sure they know you’re joking!Begin conversations at or slightly above the child’s level.
42Suggestions for Encouraging Young Children to Use Language Encourage the child to use puppets to act out conversations in different situations;Don’t assume the “correct” response when using pictures to encourage responses.Ask questions to find out what the child is thinking;Create situations where the child needs assistance (e.g. put toys on a high shelf).
43Suggestions for Encouraging Young Children to Use Language Ask questions using appropriate facial expression.Begin with “yes/no” questionsThen “what, where, who”“Why & how” come laterPlay games that encourage the child to ask questions.
44Suggestions for Encouraging Young Children to Use Language Encourage discussion of pictures when reading to the child.Model and expand on their utterancesOlder children can read to younger childrenWrite.Younger children practice scribblingThen letters & wordsOlder children can write stories
45Assistive Listening Devices FM Listening SystemTeachers use a hand-held mikeVoice is transmitted via radio wavesSignal captured by a receiver worn by the student.Infrared SystemSound is carried on an infrared beam of lightTransmitter and receiver closely resemble the FM system (Most popular in movie theatres.).Infrared--There must be an unobstructed line of sight for the light beam to travel between transmitter and receiver. Also, it doesn’t work with sunlight or bright light.Loop—student must be inside the loop. Good for small settings but fluorescent lighting can interfere with the signal.
46Assistive Listening Devices Loop SystemA loop of wire circles room near ceiling or floorInput received from a mikeSound transmitted by creating a magnetic fieldHearing aid or earpiece receives soundSound-Field SystemAnother FM systemSignal travels to speakers throughout the roomEveryone in the room benefitsInfrared--There must be an unobstructed line of sight for the light beam to travel between transmitter and receiver. Also, it doesn’t work with sunlight or bright light.Loop—student must be inside the loop. Good for small settings but fluorescent lighting can interfere with the signal.
47Why use FM Systems? They boost the Signal to Noise ratio Improves academic achievement (esp. for younger students)Decreases distractibility; increases on-task behaviorFocuses attention on verbal instruction & activitiesIncreases sentence recognitionIncreases language growthImproves quality of student’s voice when speakingReduces vocal strain and fatigue for teachersIncreases mobility for teachers
48Captioning Closed-Captioning Real-time Captioning CART Prerecorded programsReal-time CaptioningPresentations/lectures and ‘live’ telecastsCARTComputer-Aided Real-time TranslationPersonal CaptioningPalm or Clip-On Captioning DisplayCART consists of a reporter with a notebook computer and a steno keyboard, sitting next to a deaf or hard of hearing person. The CART reporter writes everything that happens, and the screen on the notebook computer is turned so that the deaf or hard of hearing person can read it. This differs from traditional court reporting in that the CART reporter is not just there to create a verbatim record, but to help the person understand the proceedings, which may mean paraphrasing, interpreting, and two-way communication.Using wireless radio transmission the PALM CAPTIONING DISPLAY provides easy to read text captioning anywhere within a venue. The battery powered unit is held on a goose neck allowing complete flexibility in positioning. “Reading captions from a PALM CAPTIONING DISPLAY is like glancing down at the speedometer while you drive.”A pair of glasses can now have a CLIP-ON-CAPTIONING DISPLAY attached to the frame. The text to be captioned is provided through wireless transmission and the words "float" about 18 inches in front of the eye. The captioning is always between the eye and the object being viewed.
49BibliographyNormal Auditory Development by Ellen Goldman, Communication Skill Builders, 1990.“The Bridge to the Future” Language Arts Curriculum by the North Dakota School for the Deaf