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Skeletal System.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal System

2 Skeletal System Bones: 22 skull 27 hand 26 foot

3 Skeletal System (cont.)
# of bones: Adults 206 Babies 300

4 Function of Bones Support for body and organs Protection
for the brain, spinal cord, and vital organs Movement levers for muscles Mineral storage – Ca, P Blood cell formation occurs in the marrow of bones

5 Division of Bones: Axial skeleton – skull, vertebral column, sternum, rib cage Appendicular skeleton –upper & lower limbs, shoulder, hip

6 Axial Skeleton

7 Appendicular Skeleton

8 Classification of Bones:
Long bones: Arm and leg bones Short bones: Wrist bones Flat bones: The bones of the skull Irregular bones: Facial bones or vertebrae

9 Structure of Bones: Bones are solid networks of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium salts.

10 Compact & Spongy Bone

11 Provides strength & protection Outermost part of the bone
Compact Bone: Dense & strong Provides strength & protection Outermost part of the bone

12 Less dense & contains bone marrow
Spongy Bone: Less dense & contains bone marrow Found in short, flat, and long bones Surrounded by compact bone

13 Structure of Long Bone Figure 6.3a,b

14 Structure of Long Bone Periosteum- tough layer of connective tissue Compact bone- found beneath periosteum Haversian canals- network of tubes that run through compact bone & contain blood vessels and nerves.

15 Structure of Long Bone:
Spongy bone- ends of long bones & middle of short, flat bones. Adds strength w/o mass! Within bones are cavities that contain a soft tissue called bone marrow.

16 Structure of Long Bone:
Two types of bone marrow: Yellow bone marrow- made up of fat cells Red bone marrow- produces red blood cells, white blood cells, & platelets

17 Structure of Long Bone

18 Bone Cells: Osteocytes- mature bone cells that are embedded in the matrix Osteoclasts- break down bone Osteoblasts- produce bone Stop growing- late teens! Our Bones are continuously remodel throughout our lives.

19 Osteoporosis Osteoclast activity is faster than osteoblast activity!

20 Osteoporosis

21 Development of Bones: Skeleton of embryo almost entirely cartilage: Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is made up of a network of protein fibers (both tough collagen & flexible elastin).

22 Development of Bone Cont’d:
Cartilage does not contain blood vessels! Cartilage is replaced by bone during the process called ossification: Osteoblasts secrete mineral deposits that replace cartilage with bone. Osteoblasts surrounded by bone tissue – now osteocytes

23 Growth: Long bones contain growth plates called epiphyseal lines at either ends

24 Growth: Growth of cartilage at these plates causes the bones to lengthen. Gradually cartilage replaced by bone- a.k.a. ossification Late adolescence/ early adulthood growth plates replaced by bone- stop growing! Cartilage in adults found: - nose, external ears, attach ribs to sternum

25 Epiphyseal Fracture

26 Bone Connections Joints- place where one bone attaches to another Classified by movement: Immovable Slightly movable Freely movable Ligaments hold bone to bone

27 Bones are interlocked and held together by connective tissue or fused
Immovable Joints: Allow no movement Bones are interlocked and held together by connective tissue or fused Example: skull bones

28 fixed

29 Slightly Movable Joints:
Permit a small amount of restricted movement Bones are separated from each other Example: Joints between lower leg Joints between adjacent vertebrae

30 inter-vertebral joints

31 Freely Movable Joints:
Permit movement in one or more directions Grouped according to shapes of the surfaces of the adjacent bones. Ball- and- Socket Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Saddle Joint

32 Ball-and-Socket Joint:
Permits movement in many directions Allows for widest range of motion Example: Humerus bone and scapula

33 ball & socket

34 Permits back and forth motion Example: Femur and tibia/fibula
Hinge Joint: Permits back and forth motion Example: Femur and tibia/fibula Like open and closing a door!

35 hinge joint

36 Allow one bone to rotate around another. Humerus and radius/ulna
Pivot Joint: Allow one bone to rotate around another. Example: Humerus and radius/ulna

37 pivot joint

38 Permits one bone to slide in two directions. Example:
Saddle Joints: Permits one bone to slide in two directions. Example: Metacarpals with your carpals

39 saddle joint

40 Structure of Joints: Cartilage covers the surfaces where two bones come together (protects bones) Joint capsule helps hold bones together & consists of two layers: Ligaments Synovial fluid

41 Structure of Joints Cont’d:
Ligaments- hold bones together in a joint Synovial fluid- produced by cells enables surfaces of the joint to slide over each other smoothly.

42 Arthritis Bursitis Sprain Scoliosis Fracture Osteoporosis
Skeletal Conditions Bursitis Scoliosis Osteoporosis Arthritis Sprain Fracture

43 Bursitis Inflammation of the bursa (sac)

44 Scoliosis Curvature of the spine

45 Osteoporosis Inefficient bone replacement
5-10% of bone mass lost every 10 years past age of 40 Rate of bone eating cells exceeds bone building cells!

46 Ex. Rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis Joint inflammation
Lose strength & function Ex. Rheumatoid arthritis

47 Rheumatoid arthritis

48 Over stretching of ligaments or tendons
Sprain Over stretching of ligaments or tendons Torn ligaments require surgery

49 Fracture Broken bone Multiple types

50 Bone breaks but does not come through the skin
Types of Fractures: Simple fracture: Bone breaks but does not come through the skin

51 Bone protrudes through the skin
Types of Fractures: Compound fracture: Bone protrudes through the skin

52 Types of Fractures: Stress fracture: A thin crack in the bone


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