Presentation on theme: "Détente: long-term state of relaxation of east-west tensions Using your book (Cold War) create a Venn diagram and down the causes of détente as notes:"— Presentation transcript:
Détente: long-term state of relaxation of east-west tensions Using your book (Cold War) create a Venn diagram and down the causes of détente as notes: –Causes relating to both Superpowers –Causes relating to the USA alone –Causes relating to the USSR alone Also, explain (after the diagram) the role of Ostpolitik. You have 20 minutes.
détente East-West Relations during détente. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1963, a hotline was installed between the US and USSR so in future crises the leaders had a direct line to each other. Also in 1963, a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was finished. –Banned all nuclear tests except underground. USA began to export wheat to the USSR. 1975: Helsinki Accords were signed that led to: –Recognized legitimacy of postwar borders of Europe –Closer cultural and technological cooperation –Called upon signatory (signing) states to protect human rights
détente Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) began in 1969. It led to several agreements in 1972: –Banning nuclear weapons on the ocean floor –Updating the hotline between Washington and Moscow –Limiting each side to 2 sites for ABM’s of limited size and effectiveness. One to protect the capital city; the other to shield a single complex of ICBM’s –WHY? –Freezing the development of new offensive weapons until 1977
détente SALT II (1974) –A ban on all underground tests over 150 kilotons –And SALT should be extended to 1985 –The treaty was signed in 1979 and there were five major points: 1.Limiting delivery systems to 2,400, declining to 2,250 in 1985 2.Missiles over a certain size were banned 3.Limits were set on the number of warheads per missile 4.Modest restrictions on the development of new delivery systems 5.Parties agreed to notify each other of tests and stocks Congress never ratified.
détente US and USSR sign many treaties during détente 1967 Outer Space Treaty –Banned placing nuclear weapons in outer space 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty –Signatories agreed not to exchange nuclear knowledge or hardware. –France, Israel, and China did not sign. 1971 Seabed Pact –Banned placing nuclear weapons on the sea bed outside a country’s 12 mile limit of territorial waters 1972 Biological Warfare Treaty –Banned the development, production, and stockpiling of biological toxins and weapons.
détente Linkage is based on the misconception that world politics revolved around the constant struggle for supremacy between the US and the USSR, and after 1964, China. Pres. Nixon, like his predecessors JFK and LBJ, viewed Vietnam as a highly complex game in which the moves were made from Washington, Moscow, and Beijing. –There was no understanding that Hanoi had its own objectives often unconnected to the USSR and China.
détente Nixon realized that the USSR and China did not get along. He realized he could use this poor relationship to a US advantage. –If Nixon pursued détente with the USSR, China would worry about a US-USSR pact against China. –If Nixon set up a relationship with China, then the USSR would get anxious. With this in mind, Nixon became the first pres. to visit China. –In doing so, the nations began a relationship that would not tolerate Soviet expansion in Asia. –The US recognized Formosa (Taiwan) as a part of China. And under Pres. Carter, the US no longer recognized the Nationalist Chinese on the island. Détente worked in China. The new relationship between the US and China unnerved the Soviets.
détente Significance of détente Some historians argue détente has been the policy of the USSR under a different name: peaceful coexistence. it was never a policy of the US until the late 1960’s and 70’s Détente meant different things for both sides –USA A way to contain Soviet power and communism with less confrontation Liberalize the USSR Undermine Soviet control over its missiles –USSR A safe way to wait for the inevitable economic and social crisis in the West that would bring about the Proletarian Revolution –BOTH: make the world safe from Nuclear war
détente Turn to page 103 in your text and read number 3.