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Session 221 Comparative Emergency Management Session 22 Slide Deck.

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Presentation on theme: "Session 221 Comparative Emergency Management Session 22 Slide Deck."— Presentation transcript:

1 Session 221 Comparative Emergency Management Session 22 Slide Deck

2 Session 222 Session Objectives 1.Provide a Brief Background on Disaster Recovery 2.Describe Pre- and Post-Disaster Recovery Planning and Coordination 3.Discuss the Various Recovery Finance Options Available to Disaster Impacted Communities and Countries 4.Examine Several Special Recovery Considerations

3 Session 223 Disaster Impacts Environmental damage Property and infrastructure damage and destruction Disruption of social systems Economic disruption and loss Physical and psychological consequences to people

4 Session 224 Recovery Defined “The emergency management function by which countries, communities, families, and individuals repair, reconstruct, or regain what has been lost as result of a disaster and, ideally, reduce the risk of similar catastrophic consequence in the future”

5 Session 225 Recovery Characteristics Takes months to years Complex planning and operational considerations Diverse range of stakeholders Victims influential in determining outcomes Community ownership is key Tied to economic development

6 Session 226 Recovery Stakeholders Victims Community Governments (all jurisdictional levels) Businesses NGOs Insurance Foreign Governments International Organizations / IFIs

7 Session 227 Recovery Phases Short-Term Recovery Long-Term Recovery

8 Session 228 Short Term Recovery Begins as soon as the disaster manifests itself Typically focus on stabilizing the lives of the affected people Sometimes called “relief” Tend to be temporary and often do not directly contribute to the community’s actual long-term development Tend to be guided by response plans

9 Session 229 Long-Term Recovery Does not begin in earnest until after the emergency phase of the disaster has ended Community or country begins to rebuild and rehabilitate Vulnerability reduction opportunities exist More funding required

10 Session 2210 Typical Recovery Actions Provision of temporary, interim, and permanent shelter Inspection of structures, and the demolition of those which cannot be repaired Removal and disposal of cleared debris Rehabilitation and/or reconstruction of infrastructure Repair of damaged buildings

11 Session 2211 Pre-Disaster Recovery Planning “PEPPER” Identify hazards, analyze risk, and determine ways to reduce those risks Greater understanding of long-term effects is gained Many recovery processes common to all hazard types Decisions that have long-term repercussions are better made in the pre-disaster environment More organized planning methodology than leaving planning until after a disaster happens

12 Session 2212 Post-Disaster Recovery Planning Acutely necessary function Performed in a time-constrained setting No normal procedures for development review and approval More sharply focused / more realistic Public consensus must be built Development must wait for risk reduction analysis

13 Session 2213 Recovery Coordination Vital, but extremely difficult to achieve Mechanisms required at local, regional, national, and international levels Wide representation key to success Mechanism becomes central repository of information and assistance

14 Session 2214 Recovery Committee Member Examples Environmental officers Floodplain manager Building officials Rural and urban planners Environmental organizations Private development and construction agencies

15 Session 2215 Recovery Assessment Damage and needs information required for planning Identifies strategies for employing available resources and setting action priorities Response assessment information transfers Determines priorities / order

16 Session 2216 Funding Options Insurance Government-based emergency relief funds Donations Loans Catastrophic bonds and weather derivatives Private development funding Incentives, and Tax increases

17 Session 2217 Allocation of Recovery Funding Disbursement dependent on the affected government’s preferences and abilities Some governments allow funding to go directly to the victims / some manage spending themselves Funds also disbursed as direct grants or loans The speed with which humanitarian relief must be provided often makes monitoring and auditing of funds more difficult than in more traditional development processes

18 Session 2218 Recovery Personnel In recovery, heavy demand for personnel Community may have enough funding and materials but a shortage of personnel to support the workload –The most important personnel source is the affected region itself – many need immediate employment –Have a vested interest in the outcome of the recovery effort / most in tune with the community’s character Second personnel source = relief agencies Third source = military forces –Sheer numbers, maneuverability, technical expertise, equipment, manageability, and relatively low cost Fourth source = private contractors

19 Session 2219 Recovery Materials Two options: local and imported. Local is preferable because: –Supports the local economy –Ensures materials are appropriate for the local climate –Ensures materials are culturally acceptable Goods available in local markets means procurement is faster and more efficient Local procurement can exhaust local inventories and cause a ‘market shock’ where prices are Wage inflation for skilled workers Massive devastation to the environment Recycling is a third option

20 Session 2220 Resisting the Urge to Return to Normal The greatest obstacle that recovery planners face First emerges in the short-term phase Victims want to return to their old life as quickly as possible simply to put an end to suffering Tremendous pressure for disaster managers Public outcry echoed / amplified by the media Businesses losing opportunities will voice disapproval Pressure on politicians at all government levels

21 Session 2221 Opportunity in Disguise Recovery period presents an opportunity –A chance of increasing community resilience –Economic revitalization –Urban improvement / rezoning / modernization Opportunity to create a better, more resilient, and more successful community that rarely exists otherwise –Pressure to rebuild as quickly as possible makes such an opportunity difficult to exploit –Pre-disaster planning helps After a disaster, mitigation opportunities / conditions change considerably –Budgets may swell with relief funding –Dangerous buildings may have been destroyed

22 Session 2222 Ensuring Recovery Equity The poor bear a greater brunt of the disaster and face greater recovery difficulty –Because more resources available to the wealthy to ensure that risk is reduced before the disaster –E.g., insurance, disaster-resistant construction, lower- risk neighborhoods, risk education Contingent upon disaster managers and recovery planners to ensure equitable distribution Poor need advocates on the planning team Cultural vulnerabilities also exist

23 Session 2223 Community Relocation In some cases, the only viable option for reducing future disaster risk is to relocate the community This is a complicated undertaking, and is rarely effective –Extremely difficult to locate safer sites within close proximity to the original community –Substantial infrastructure may still be intact or repairable –The cost to relocate is usually higher than the cost to rebuild Relocation viable if planners work closely with the affected community / ensure that their concerns are addressed and their needs are met

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