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© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 8 – Location Strategies © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 8 – Location Strategies © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 1 Operations Management Chapter 8 – Location Strategies © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc. PowerPoint presentation to accompany Heizer/Render Principles of Operations Management, 6e Operations Management, 8e

2 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 2 Location Strategy  One of the most important decisions a firm makes  Increasingly global in nature  Long term impact and decisions are difficult to change  The objective is to maximize the benefit of location to the firm

3 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 3 Location Decisions Country Decision Critical Success Factors 1.Political risks, government rules, attitudes, incentives 2.Cultural and economic issues 3.Location of markets 4.Labor availability, attitudes, productivity, costs 5.Availability of supplies, communications, energy 6.Exchange rates and currency risks Figure 8.1

4 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 4 Factors That Affect Location Decisions  Labor productivity  Wage rates are not the only cost  Lower productivity may increase total cost Labor cost per day Productivity (units per day) = cost per unit Connecticut = $1.17 per unit $70 60 units Juarez = $1.25 per unit $25 20 units

5 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 5 Location Decisions Region/ Community Decision Critical Success Factors 1.Corporate desires 2.Attractiveness of region 3.Labor availability, costs, attitudes towards unions 4.Costs and availability of utilities 5.Environmental regulations 6.Government incentives and fiscal policies 7.Proximity to raw materials and customers 8.Land/construction costs MN WI MI IL IN OH Figure 8.1

6 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 6 Location Decisions Site Decision Critical Success Factors 1.Site size and cost 2.Air, rail, highway, and waterway systems 3.Zoning restrictions 4.Nearness of services/ supplies needed 5.Environmental impact issues Figure 8.1

7 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 7 Factors That Affect Location Decisions  Proximity to markets  Proximity to suppliers  Proximity to competitors

8 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 8 Service Location Strategy 1. Purchasing power of customer-drawing area 2. Service and image compatibility with demographics of the customer-drawing area 3. Competition in the area 4. Quality of the competition 5. Uniqueness of the firm’s and competitors’ locations 6. Physical qualities of facilities and neighboring businesses 7. Operating policies of the firm 8. Quality of management

9 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 9 Factor-Rating Method  Popular because a wide variety of factors can be included in the analysis  Six steps in the method 1.Develop a list of relevant factors called critical success factors 2.Assign a weight to each factor 3.Develop a scale for each factor 4.Score each location for each factor 5.Multiply score by weights for each factor for each location 6.Recommend the location with the highest point score

10 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 10 Factor-Rating Example CriticalScores Success(out of 100)Weighted Scores FactorWeightFranceDenmarkFranceDenmark Labor availability and attitude (.25)(70) = 17.5(.25)(60) = 15.0 People-to car ratio (.05)(50) = 2.5(.05)(60) = 3.0 Per capita income (.10)(85) = 8.5(.10)(80) = 8.0 Tax structure (.39)(75) = 29.3(.39)(70) = 27.3 Education and health (.21)(60) = 12.6(.21)(70) = 14.7 Totals Table 8.3

11 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 11 Locational Break-Even Analysis  Method of cost-volume analysis used for industrial locations  Three steps in the method 1.Determine fixed and variable costs for each location 2.Plot the cost for each location 3.Select location with lowest total cost for expected production volume

12 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 12 Locational Break-Even Analysis Example Three locations: Akron$30,000$75$180,000 Bowling Green$60,000$45$150,000 Chicago$110,000$25$160,000 Selling price = $120 Expected volume = 2,000 units FixedVariableTotal CityCostCostCost Total Cost = Fixed Cost + Variable Cost x Volume

13 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 13 Locational Break-Even Analysis Example – $180,000 $180,000 – – $160,000 $160,000 – $150,000 $150,000 – – $130,000 $130,000 – – $110,000 $110,000 – – $80,000 $80,000 – – $60,000 $60,000 – – $30,000 $30,000 – – $10,000 $10,000 – – Annual cost ||||||| 05001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000 Volume Akron lowest cost Bowling Green lowest cost Chicago lowest cost Chicago cost curve Akron cost curve Bowling Green cost curve Figure 8.2

14 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 14 Center-of-Gravity Method  Finds location of distribution center that minimizes distribution costs  Considers  Location of markets  Volume of goods shipped to those markets  Shipping cost (or distance)

15 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 15 Center-of-Gravity Method  Place existing locations on a coordinate grid  Grid origin and scale is arbitrary  Maintain relative distances  Calculate X and Y coordinates for ‘center of gravity’  Assumes cost is directly proportional to distance and volume shipped

16 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 16 Center-of-Gravity Method x - coordinate = ∑d ix Q i ∑Q i i i ∑d iy Q i ∑Q i i i y - coordinate = whered ix =x-coordinate of location i d iy =y-coordinate of location i Q i =Quantity of goods moved to or from location i

17 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 17 Center-of-Gravity Method North-SouthEast-West – – – – – |||||| Arbitrary origin Chicago (30, 120) New York (130, 130) Pittsburgh (90, 110) Atlanta (60, 40)

18 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 18 Center-of-Gravity Method Number of Containers Store LocationShipped per Month Chicago (30, 120)2,000 Pittsburgh (90, 110)1,000 New York (130, 130)1,000 Atlanta (60, 40)2,000 x-coordinate = (30)(2000) + (90)(1000) + (130)(1000) + (60)(2000) = 66.7 y-coordinate = (120)(2000) + (110)(1000) + (130)(1000) + (40)(2000) = 93.3

19 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 19 Center-of-Gravity Method North-SouthEast-West – – – – – |||||| Arbitrary origin Chicago (30, 120) New York (130, 130) Pittsburgh (90, 110) Atlanta (60, 40) Center of gravity (66.7, 93.3) +

20 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 20 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  New tool to help in location analysis  Enables more complex demographic analysis  Available data bases include  Detailed census data  Detailed maps  Utilities  Geographic features  Locations of major services

21 © 2006 Prentice Hall, Inc.8 – 21 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)


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