# Service Facility Location. Learning Objectives n n Discuss how different customer service criteria affect facility location. n n Locate a single facility.

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Service Facility Location

Learning Objectives n n Discuss how different customer service criteria affect facility location. n n Locate a single facility using the cross- median approach. n n Use the Huff model to evaluate the economic feasibility of a retail service location. n Locate multiple facilities using the set covering model. n n Discuss nontraditional location strategies.

Service Facility Location Planning n Competitive positioning: prime location can be barrier to entry. n Demand management: diverse set of market generators. n Flexibility: plan for future economic changes and portfolio effect. n Expansion strategy: contiguous, regional followed by “fill-in,” or concentrated.

Geographic Representation Location on a Plane Y Destination j Yj Euclidean Origin i Metropolitan 0 Xi X j Yi X

Effect of Optimization Criteria 1. Maximize Utilization ( City C: elderly find distance a barrier ) 2. Minimize Distance per Capita ( City B: centrally located ) 3. Minimize Distance per Visit ( City A: many frequent users ) City A City B City C -10 -5 5 10 15 -15 -10 -5 5 10 15 20 25 3 2 1 * * *

Estimation of Geographic Demand n n Define the Target Market (Families receiving AFDC) n n Select a Unit of Area (Census track, ZIP code) n n Estimate Geographic Demand (Regression analysis) n n Map Geographic Demand (3D visual depiction)

Single Facility Location Using Cross Median Approach 1 (W 1 =7) 2 (W 2 =1) 3 (W 3 =3) 4 (W 4 =5)

Single Facility Location Using Cross Median Approach 1 (W 1 =7) 2 (W 2 =1) 3 (W 3 =3) 4 (W 4 =5) Solution is line segment y=2, x=2,3

Huff Retail Location Model First, a gravity analogy is used to estimate attractiveness of store j for customers in area i. A ij = Attraction to store j for customers in area i S j = Size of the store (e.g. square feet) T ij = Travel time from area i to store j lambda = Parameter reflecting propensity to travel

Huff Retail Location Model Second, to account for competitors we calculate the probability that customers from area i will visit a particular store j.

Huff Retail Location Model Third, annual customer expenditures for item k at store j can now be calculated. P ij = Probability customers from area i travel to store j C i = Number of customers in area i (e.g. census track) B ik = Annual budget for product k for customers in area i m = Number of customer areas in the market region

Huff Retail Location Model Fourth, market share of product k purchased at store j can now be calculated.

Site Selection Considerations 1. Access: 4. Parking: Convenient to freeway exit and Adequate off-street parking entrance ramps 5. Expansion: Served by public transportation Room for expansion 2. Visibility: 6. Environment: Set back from street Immediate surroundings Surrounding clutter should complement the Sign placement service 3. Traffic: 7. Competition: Traffic volume on street that may Location of competitors Indicate potential impulse buying 8. Government: Traffic congestion that could be a Zoning restrictions hindrance (e.g.., fire stations) Taxes

Breaking the Rules n n Competitive Clustering (Among Competitors) (e.g. Auto Dealers, Motels) n n Saturation Marketing (Same Firm) (e.g. An Bon Pain, Ice Cream Vendors) n n Marketing Intermediaries (e.g. Credit Cards, HMO) n n Substitute Electronic Media for Travel (e.g. telecommuting, e-Commerce) n n Impact of the Internet on Service Location (e.g. Amazon.com, eBay, FedEx)

Strategic Location Considerations Front Office Back Office ExternalCustomer(consumer) Is travel out to customer or customer travel to site? Can electronic media substitute for physical travel? Is location a barrier to entry? Is service performed on person or property? Is co-location necessary? How is communication accomplished? InternalCustomer(employee) Availability of labor? Are self-service kiosks an alternative? Are economies of scale possible? Can employees work from home? Is offshoring an option?

Topics for Discussion n Pick a particular service, and identify shortcomings in its site selection. n How would you proceed to estimate empirically the parameter λ in the Huff retail location model for a branch bank? n Why do you think set covering is an attractive approach to public sector facility location? n What are the benefits of using intermediaries in the service distribution channel?

Interactive Exercise The class breaks into small groups and each group comes up with examples of service facility locations that seem to defy the analytical models discussed in the chapter. The class breaks into small groups and each group comes up with examples of service facility locations that seem to defy the analytical models discussed in the chapter.

Athol Furniture Site Alternatives 1 2 3 4 7 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 Bluff lake State Park A B Z Y X Railroad Freeway Major street Park boundary River Census block group Existing retail outlets Potential sites 4

Athol Furniture Data COMPETITORS’ STORE SIZES MAXIMUM SIZE LIMIT OF SITES Store Sales area, sq ft Site Maximum sales area, sq ft A 10,000 X 15,000 B 15,000 Y 20,000 Z 10,000 MINIMUM TRAVEL TIME BETWEEN POTENTIAL AND EXISTING SITES AND BLOCK GROUPS, Min Census block group Site 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A 7 5 5 9 1 3 4 5 7 10 14 17 B 10 8 8 10 7 3 3 2 1 2 2 5 X 16 14 14 16 13 8 7 6 4 4 2 2 Y 12 10 10 12 9 5 4 3 2 4 2 5 Z 7 5 5 7 4 2 1 4 3 10 10 13 RELATIONSHIP OF STORE SIZE TO MARGIN ON SALES, EXPENSES, AND NET OPERATING PROFIT AS % OF SALES Sales area, Margin Net operating profit sq ft on sales Expenses before taxes 10,000 16.2 12.3 3.9 15,000 15.6 12.0 3.6 20,000 14.7 11.8 2.0

Athol Furniture Demographics MARKET DATA Census block Number of Average annual Average annual furniture group households income expenditures per household 1 730 \$65,000-\$70,000 \$180 2 1130 45,000-50,000 125 3 1035 80,000-85,000 280 4 635 150,000-over 350 5 160 25,000-30,000 75 6 105 20,000-25,000 50 7 125 20,000-25,000 60 8 470 40,000-45,000 115 9 305 30,000-35,000 90 10 1755 75,000-80,000 265 11 900 85,000-90,000 215 12 290 150,000-over 370 7,640

Store Site Selection

Market Share Analysis

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