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NFPA 1142 ‘It’s better to be safe 100 times than dead one time.’ – Mark Twain.

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Presentation on theme: "NFPA 1142 ‘It’s better to be safe 100 times than dead one time.’ – Mark Twain."— Presentation transcript:

1 NFPA 1142 ‘It’s better to be safe 100 times than dead one time.’ – Mark Twain

2 NFPA 1142 An NFPA study (Fahy, 2002) observed that the death rates for the three major causes of fatal injuries to firefighters while inside structure fires (lost inside, structural collapse, and fire progress) have been rising.

3 NFPA 1142 This same study points to a lack of experience as a potential cause of fireground fatalities from traumatic injury resulting from rapid fire progress or collapse.

4 NFPA 1142 Training related fatalities have also been on the increase. AND Live fire training has typically been one of the leading types of training activity resulting in fatalities. (USFA, 2003)

5 NFPA 1142 So Injuries and fatalities during LF training and during fireground operations are on the increase! Fireground Operations Live Fire Training Firefighter Experience

6 NFPA 1142 Live fire training policies are defined by three interrelated components: National consensus standards: NFPA 1403, OSHA regulations, Local SOGs or SOPs

7 NFPA 1142 NFPA 1403, 2007 edition NFPA 1403 places emphasis on addressing unsafe acts and conditions directly connected to accidents that have occurred during LF training.

8 NFPA 1142 NFPA 1403, 2007 edition Training fire suppression personnel engaged in firefighting operations under live fire conditions. Provide a process for conducting live fire training evolutions to ensure that they are conducted in safe facilities and that the exposure to health and safety hazards for the firefighters receiving the training is minimized.

9 NFPA 1142 NFPA 1403, 2007 edition NFPA 1403 is a compliance standard, not a competency standard. The only competency addressed states... "qualified by the authority having jurisdiction to deliver firefighter training."

10 NFPA 1142 Safe and effective live fire training is dependent on knowledgeable and experienced instructors.

11 NFPA 1142 Instructors must have expertise in fire behavior and tactical operations. They must also understand how to pass this expertise on to their students.

12 NFPA 1142 History of NFPA 1403

13 NFPA 1142 Boulder, Colorado 26 Jan 1982

14 NFPA FFs die during search & rescue drills, Lt seriously injured Combustible Fiberboard, Tires, Motor Oil thrown into burn pit just to produce smoke

15 NFPA 1142

16 Mesa, AZ 25 May 1985 Mesa, AZ 25 May 1985

17 NFPA 1142 Firefighter severely burned while assisting with search & rescue drills using a burn barrel This is a picture of the FF on the day of the incident, wearing exactly what he had on at the time of the injury

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22 1 st Edition NFPA

23 NFPA Milford, Michigan

24 NFPA 1142 Three FFs perish during an attempt at arson investigation training. No accountability and the use of multiple props simultaneously contribute to the fatal incident

25 NFPA 1142 Parsippany, NJ 1992

26 NFPA 1142 Young FF is permanently disabled as a result of live fire training inside of a dilapidated school bus. The training took place two miles from a comprehensive training facility. The objective of the training was “to make them feel some heat.”

27 NFPA nd and 3 rd Editions of NFPA

28 NFPA 1142 Greenwood, Delaware 2000 Assistant Chief dies during burn down while using a pressurized garden sprayer in a room with several fires burning. The use of a SCBA contributed to the fatality, since the chief was not used to wearing one during interior live fire training.

29 NFPA 1142

30 Lairdsville, New York 9 Sept. 2001

31 Rookie FF dies during RIT training The 19 year old had been on the dept for less than 3 weeks before being placed above the inferno. The investigation would reveal that the young man’s SCBA was never turned on. The Assistant Chief that started the fire by pushing a couch and mattress against the bottom of the stairwell was criminally convicted of manslaughter.

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36 -John Klein Lairdsville Fire Company Vice President “He just joined August 20 th. He was only on two controlled burns, and now he’s gone. It’s sad that we have to lose young guys like that.”

37 NFPA 1142 Poinciana, Florida 2002

38 NFPA 1142 Poinciana Two firefighters entered as a crew without a hose line to simulate a search and rescue operation looking for a mannequin dressed as a firefighter. A crew with a hose line was located in the next room by the doorway that led to the fire room. The deaths were the result of ‘smoke inhalation and thermal injuries suffered during the training exercise. The addition of the foam mattress to the fire load is one of many variables that could contribute to a flashover, but is not exclusive.

39 NFPA 1142 Poinciana, Fla 2002 RIT IC

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43 4 th Edition of NFPA

44 NFPA 1142 Miami-Dade 2003 Recruit Dies during advanced shipboard training drill

45 NFPA 1142



48 Investigative Findings Criminal charges not filed – but not closed. 36 specific findings – This was not a BFST Certified Training Facility. Although not approved for gas, a gas- fueled fire was used in this training. NFPA 1402 and 1403 were not complied with. (1403 was required by FAC)

49 NFPA 1142 No Safety Officer, RIT, EMS stand-by or other emergency contingencies in place or planned. Lack of command structure and plans, including no real Incident Commander. Not all personnel assigned to these evolutions had specific training for “live- fire” training or familiarity with the structure. The environment was determined to be excessively hot by the Lead Instructor, but the evolution was not terminated.

50 NFPA 1142 There were two separate fires within the structure burning simultaneously. The exercise was more advanced than for initial recruit training. The Instructor-In-Charge failed to identify and correct safety hazards. Instructors did not closely monitor trainee movement. Instructors did not follow the trainees out to ensure they all reached the outside safely. There was not a means of monitoring the temperature of the environment.

51 NFPA 1142 The ventilation means available in this incident had been rendered unusable. Other, non-organic materials such as polypropylene rope were found in the “fire-box” by investigators. When the two instructors at the “fire-box” left, they failed to notify the Incident Commander.

52 NFPA 1142 Findings 9 M-D Fire Rescue personnel disciplined M-D Acting Training Chief suspended for 30 days Legal actions resulting in settlements over $2 million, with other lawsuits pending

53 NFPA 1142 Wayne Mitchell Married with children 37 Yr Old Recruit First Live Fire

54 NFPA 1142 Pennsylvania State Fire Academy 2005 Located in Borough of Lewistown -Mifflin County, PA Facility opened in 1955 * PSFA Only facility owned and operated by Commonwealth of PA

55 NFPA 1142 The Pennsylvania State Fire Academy Current class A burn buildings opened in May 1993 Lined with “High Temperature Lining” (HTL) in 2001

56 NFPA 1142 Instructor dies while operating alone inside the basement of a burn building after incurring a catastrophic failure of his facepiece while inside of the burn room. He was unable to escape the room before collapsing, and a delay with the fire attack crew outside meant that a great deal of time would pass before he was finally discovered.

57 NFPA 1142


59 Baltimore 2007 Female recruit dies during training in a row house

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64 NFPA Violations: Multiple Fires Set (8) Failure to conduct walk-through Lack of adequate radio communications Insufficient safety personnel No pre-burn plan or pre-burn briefing Use of unapproved materials; (tires mattresses)

65 NFPA 1142 Pre-existing condition of structure; no preparation done prior to burn Misunderstanding of verbal communications – IC / Instructor RIT comprised of recruits; not properly prepared for deployment

66 NFPA 1142 Renowned LP Gas instructor is injured while attempting to fix a leak in his school’s training field

67 NFPA 1142

68 NFPA 1403, Chapter 7

69 NFPA 1142 The cover of Time for some changes…

70 NFPA 1142

71 NCFRC Exceptions: NC Fire and Rescue Commission adopts NFPA 1403 – Standard on Live Fire Training Evolutions, 2007 edition. The following exceptions to the national consensus standard are listed:

72 NFPA 1142 Chapter 4, Section 4-3, Fuel Materials, paragraph “The use of flammable or combustible liquids, as defined in NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, shall not be permitted for use in live fire training evolutions in acquired structures.” The Commission supports the pre-application of small, appropriate amounts of Class 'B' fuel on a fire set, if necessary, before the training fire has been started. The Commission recognizes that the pre-application of Class 'B' fuel, as an option, is a useful tool for the Live Fire Qualified instructor when conducting live fire training.

73 NFPA 1142 Chapter 4, Section 4.2, Structures and Facilities, Paragraph “roof ventilation openings that are normally closed but can be opened in the event of an emergency shall be permitted to be utilized.” The Commission supports the 1997 edition, Section *(g) that states “an adequate ventilation opening(s) shall be made in the roof.” This statement has been removed from the 2002/2007 editions. The Commission supports the Live Fire Qualification course and takes exception to this removal. The Commission requires that all Live Burn courses discuss ventilation openings for increased safety.

74 NFPA 1142 Chapter 5, Section 5-3, Paragraph 1 “….multiplied by the construction classification number as determined by Chapter 4 and multiplied by 1.5” The Commission requires the Live Fire Qualification course to teach a multiplication factor of.5 added to the initial exposure factor for every additional exposure identified in the pre-fire plan.

75 NFPA 1142 Three Other NCFRC Policies: Mandatory re-qualification for LFQ instructors every five year NFPA 1403 revision cycle Injury Investigations Live Fire Training Audits: Acquired Structures

76 NFPA 1142 Mandatory Re-qualification Every Five Years Every Five Years (NFPA 1403 Revision Cycle) The Certification Board recommends the Commission adopt a mandatory re- qualification class for all LFQ instructors to be taken every 5 years, as the NFPA 1403 standard is revised.

77 NFPA 1142 Injury Investigations The Delivery Agency shall notify the Fire and Rescue Commission, as soon as possible, within 72 hours, of an injury associated with Live Fire Training.

78 NFPA 1142 Live Fire Training Audits The Delivery Agency shall notify the Fire and Rescue Commission staff at least 15 days prior to a live fire training class, providing the location, time, and the name of the lead instructor for the purpose of random audits. -Fire Training Notification Form

79 NFPA 1142 Print the Registration Receipt!

80 Kevin McArthur (919) Questions or for scheduling a qualification or refresher class contact:

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