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Chapter 3 Matter, Energy, And Life

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1 Chapter 3 Matter, Energy, And Life

2 Matter Is Made Of Atoms, Molecules, And Compounds
Atom: simplest building block of chemicals Element: a material composed of identical atoms Compound: a combination of atoms in a fixed arrangement and proportion Molecule: The simplest chemical unit of a compound (O2, H2O, CH4, C6H12O6 etc.) Many materials (NaCl) don’t have molecules

3 Chemical Formulas Most Elements have symbols that are common sense: H (Hydrogen), Si (Silicon), etc. Some, known in ancient times, have symbols from Latin: Fe (Ferrum = Iron), Au (Aurum = Gold), Na (Natrium = lye, for Sodium) C6H12O6 = Glucose = 6 Carbon, 12 Hydrogen, 6 Oxygen SiO2 = Quartz = 2 Oxygen for each Silicon

4 Electrical Charge Is An Important Chemical Characteristic
Atoms contain three kinds of particles: Protons (+) in the nucleus. Number of protons determines what an element is Neutrons (0) in the nucleus. Bind the nucleus together Electrons (-) orbiting the nucleus Group together into shells This is what interacts with other atoms Atoms can gain or lose electrons and become electrically charged (Ions)

5 Chemical Bonds Hold Molecules Together
Ionic: Ions of opposite charge attract each other. Example: NaCl, most minerals Covalent: Atoms share electrons with neighbors. Example: Most carbon chemicals Metallic: Electrons wander freely between atoms. Positive atoms held together by negative electron “glue” Hydrogen: H and O in water molecules attracted to neighbors

6 Chemical Bonds Hold Molecules Together
Ionic bonding holds most rocks and minerals together Covalent bonding holds living things together Metallic bonding holds industrial civilization together Hydrogen bonding gives water its solvent and heat-storing capacity

7 Elements Of Life C, H, O, N, P, S are principal elements of life
Some elements like C can share more than one electron with a neighbor (multiple bonding) Some elements like Fe and S can gain or lose electrons in more than one way These versatile atoms can be used for Energy storage Information storage Triggering chemical reactions

8 Elements and Life Some very abundant elements have no biological uses (Al, Si, Ti) Some elements are essential in low amounts but toxic at greater levels (Cu, Se) Everything is toxic at excessive levels Some elements are toxic and have no biological functions (Lead, Mercury)

9 The Elements

10 The Elements and Life

11 Organic Compounds Have A Carbon Backbone
Organic compounds contain carbon as their basic structural core Chains (Petroleum) Rings (Benzene, Toluene) Simple carbon-bearing chemicals aren’t considered Organic CH4: Methane CO2: Carbon Dioxide CaCO3: Calcite, the Main Constituent of Limestone

12 Cells Are The Fundamental Units Of Life
Cell Membrane: Contains contents and processes, excludes foreign objects (mostly) Nucleus: Where DNA resides Simplest organisms lack nucleus Mitochondria Not to be confused with Midichlorians (MTFBWY) Produce Energy for Cell Have their own DNA Probably originated as independent organisms

13 Energy Energy Occurs In Different Types And Qualities
Thermodynamics Regulates Energy Transfers Energy For Life Extremophiles Live In Severe Conditions Green Plants Get Energy From The Sun Photosynthesis Captures Energy While Respiration Releases That Energy

14 Thermodynamics Regulates Energy Transfers
First Law: Energy is Not Created or Destroyed Can Change Form Matter and Energy can be converted Second Law: Entropy increases Entropy is often likened to disorder but is not entirely the same Entropy can decrease at expense of surroundings

15 From Species To Ecosystems
Organisms Occur In Populations, Communities, And Ecosystems Food Chains, Food Webs, And Trophic Levels Link Species Ecological Pyramids Describe Trophic Levels

16 Waterworld

17 Sometimes It Looks More Like This

18 Reasons to be a ”Water chauvinist".
Stays liquid over a wide range of temperatures. Polar or asymmetrical molecule. Attracts ions easily - Good transporter of nutrients Does not dissolve organic molecules (so we do not dissolve in our own cell fluids)

19 Material Cycles And Life Processes
Sources: supply elements for life and physical processes Example: Burning vegetation releases CO2 Sinks: remove materials from environment Example: Plants remove CO2 from the air Limestone removes CO2 from the air Residence Time: How long an average atom or molecule remains in a system Example: Water molecule in air, 10 days

20 Material Cycles on the Earth
The Hydrologic Cycle Moves Water Around The Earth Oceans – Atmosphere – Land - Ocean Nutrient Cycles Ultimate Source: Rocks Released by Weathering Taken up by Biosphere Transported by Water or Atmosphere Sinks: Atmosphere, Deep Oceans, Rocks

21 Reasons to be a "Carbon chauvinist".
Can bond to four neighboring atoms Can bond to other carbon atoms, sharing one, two, or three electrons These properties make it possible to form a vast array of organic molecules No other element has these properties

22 Carbon in the Earth Volcanoes emit carbon dioxide
Carbonate rocks lock up carbon dioxide Ancient biomass locked up carbon as coal, petroleum, natural gas

23 Carbon in the Biosphere
Plants use sunlight, H2O, CO2 to create organic molecules: 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy  C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (toxic waste) Animals run the reactions in reverse: C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2  6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy Also use organic molecules directly (vitamins)

24 Carbon Cycles Plant – Animal Cycle Decay returns CO2 to atmosphere
Marine organisms fix CO2 in carbonate rocks Weathering returns CO2 to atmosphere Some C fixed in rocks long-term as carbonates or fossil fuel Humans burn fossil fuel and add (not return) CO2 to atmosphere

25 The Carbonate-Silicate Cycle
Earth has almost as much carbon dioxide as Venus Volcanoes add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere Mountain-building favors cooling Carbon dioxide is removed from the air to make carbonate rocks “Icehouse” and “Greenhouse” episodes

26 The Paradox of Nitrogen
It makes up 79% of the atmosphere Most plants cannot use N2 Nitrogen converted to usable forms by specialized microorganisms Human use of nitrogen Nitrogen-fixing plants (Legumes) Natural fertilizers (Guano, Nitrate Minerals) Synthetic nitrates (Haber Process)

27 Sulfur in the Earth Sulfide minerals: ores, pyrite
Volcanic emissions: H2S, SO2 Coal: pyrite, organic sulfur Petroleum: organic sulfur

28 From Earth to Environment
Volcanic emissions: H2S, SO2 Microbial action Weathering Natural exposures Mine waste Smelting Fossil Fuels

29 Acid Rain S + O2 = SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3 (sulfur trioxide) SO3 + H2O = H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) Forms by smelting or burning fossil fuels

30 Acid Rain pH: Measure of acidity
0 = extremely acid (Muriatic Acid) 7 = neutral 14 = extremely alkaline (Lye) Normal water in air is 5.5 (Carbonic Acid) Acid rain can be pH 3 or less Ca and Mg neutralize acid (Limestone, Dolomite, some volcanic rocks) Rocks poor in Ca and Mg cannot neutralize acid (Granite)

31 Phosphorus in the Earth
Most common limiting factor for life Mostly in apatite Ca5(Cl,F)(PO4)3 Granites Phosphate Rock (recycled biological P) Released by: Weathering Mining (for fertilizer)

32 Phosphorus on Land Phosphorus in Soil Uptake by plants
Consumption by animals Return to soil via plant and animal waste, decay Some lost by runoff

33 Phosphorus in Water Essential to aquatic life
Excess causes eutrophication Runaway productivity, excess oxygen demand Return to water via plant and animal waste, decay Some ends up in sediments (Chitin, Bone) Sedimentary P returns to land via uplift, plate tectonics Human-Applied P goes to Oceans (Sink)

34 Distinctive Aspects of the P Cycle
No Atmospheric Component Geologic Portion of Cycle Very Slow Mostly involves biological transfers P in oceans not recycled quickly Human use: Rocks – Fertilizer – Oceans Not Recycled Peak Phosphorus? Phosphorus (Fertilizer) Morocco, China, South Africa, Jordan, U.S. = 90% of World Reserves


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