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An Implementation of Mostly- Copying GC on Ruby VM Tomoharu Ugawa The University of Electro-Communications, Japan.

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Presentation on theme: "An Implementation of Mostly- Copying GC on Ruby VM Tomoharu Ugawa The University of Electro-Communications, Japan."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Implementation of Mostly- Copying GC on Ruby VM Tomoharu Ugawa The University of Electro-Communications, Japan

2 Background(1/2) Script languages are used at various scene –Before: only for tiny applications Short lifetime Runs with little memory GC (Garbage Collection) was not important –Now for servers such as Rails, as well May have long lifetime May create a lot of objects GC has a great impact on total performance

3 Background(2/2) Rubys GC –Conservative Mark-Sweep GC Does not move objects –Once we expanded the heap, we can hardly shrink the heap Heap cannot release unless it contains NO object Lucky cases rarely happen Ex) Once a server uses a lot of memory for a heavy request, it will run with a large heap even after responding the request. Initial Heap Additional Heap 1 Additional Heap 2 Live

4 Goal Compact the heap so that Ruby can return unused memory to OS. Use Mostly-Copying GC –Modify the algorithm for Ruby Minimize the change of C-libraries

5 Agenda Shrinking the heap using Mostly-Copying GC Modified Mostly-Copying algorithm Evaluation Related work Conclusion

6 Why Ruby does not move objects? move -> have to update pointers to the moving object Rubys GC does not recognize all pointers to Ruby objects –In the C runtime stack –In regions allocated using malloc by C-libraries Cannot update such pointers Ambiguous root (cloud mark) Ambiguous pointer (blue arrow) Exact pointer move

7 Even so, we CAN move most objects We can update pointers contained in Ruby objects –Objects referred only from Ruby objects can be moved Most objects are referred only from Ruby Objects Most objects can be moved This is the basic idea of the Mostly-Copying GC

8 Mostly-Copying GC [Bartlett 88] Objects referred only by exact pointers Move it and update referencing pointers Objects referred by ambiguous pointers (as well) Do not move it

9 The heap of Mostly-Copying GC Break the heap into equal-sized blocks –From-space of copying GC is a set of blocks root To From

10 Shrinking the heap Free blocks are not contiguous in mostly-coping collector Release memory by the block –Block = hardware page –To release a block, do not access the block Because such a blocks has no live object, all we have to do is not to allocate new objects on the block Virtual memory system automatically reuses the page frame assigned to the block –(optional) We can tell the OS that the page has no valid data madvise system call (Linux)

11 C-libraries C-libraries wraps malloc-ed data to handle as Ruby objects. A wrapper object has: –A pointer to malloc-ed area –A function that marks objects referred from the data –NO pointer updating interface traverse (data) { mark(data->p1); mark_location(…); } p1 Treat all pointers from malloc-ed data as ambiguous pointers

12 Agenda Shrinking the heap using Mostly-Copying GC Modified Mostly-Copying algorithm Evaluation Related work Conclusion

13 Mostly-Copying GC of Bartlett Objects referred only from exact pointers Copy it to to-space Objects referred from ambiguous pointers Move the containing block to to-space logically (they call this promotion) The algorithm may encounter new ambiguous pointers. Pointed object may have been copied. –Bartletts algorithm copies all objects even if they are pointed by ambiguous pointers. –Objects in blocks promoted are eventually written back from their copies.

14 Problem Memory efficiency –Copy objects even referred by ambiguous pointers –Garbage in promoted pages is not collected root

15 Problem Memory efficiency –Copy objects even referred by ambiguous pointers –Garbage in promoted pages is not collected root

16 Problem Memory efficiency –Copy objects even referred by ambiguous pointers –Garbage in promoted pages is not collected root

17 Modify the algorithm Mark-Sweep GC before Copying –Mark: find out ambiguous root Objects referred by ambiguous pointers no more be copied –Sweep (only promoted block) Each block has a free-list –All Ruby objects are 5 words => Do not cause (external) fragmentation

18 Modified Algorithm(1/4) Trace pointers from the root set –Mark all visited objects –Promote blocks containing objects referred by ambiguous pointers root Promoted (thick border) Live mark

19 Modified Algorithm(2/4) Sweep promoted blocks –Collect objects that are not marked root

20 Modified Algorithm(3/4) Copying GC (Using promoted block as the root set) –Do not copy objects in promoted blocks root

21 Modified Algorithm(4/4) Scan promoted blocks to erase mark of each objects root

22 The only change of C-libraries Mark-array –An array that has the same pointers held in malloc-ed data –The C-library marks only the mark-array –The collector can traverse further –But, it cannot recognize they are ambiguous pointers Remember: all pointers from malloc-ed data are treated as ambiguous ones Impact –2 modules –3 parts Change C-libraries so that THEY scan mark-array as ambiguous roots

23 Evaluation Ruby VM –YARV r590 (This is old but has essentially the same GC as Ruby 1.9) Items –Heap size –Elapsed time Environment –CPU: Pentium 3GHz –OS: Linux –compiler: gcc (-O2)

24 Benchmark Program 2.times { ary = Array.new times { |i| ary[i] = Array.new (1..100).each {|j| ary[i][j-1] = 1.to_f / j.to_f } if (i % 100 == 0) then CP() end } times { |i| ary[i] = nil if (i % 100 == 0) then CP() end } times { |i| 100.times{ } if (i % 100 == 0) then CP() end } Increases live objects (processing heavy req.) Decreases live objects (end of heavy req.) Make short-live objects (series of ordinary requests) Profiling the heap by each 100 loops checkpoints

25 Heap size (MB) Checkpoint Our VM Traditional VM Black line: amount of live objects

26 (%) Relative elapsed time of our VM (Relative to traditional VM) Average (except for thread) 102%

27 Related work Customizable Memory Management Framework [Attardi et. al 94] –Collect garbage by sweeping promoted blocks –Ambiguous pointer are found out during copying Copies of objects that has been copied when the collector recognizes they should not be copied will become garbage Our algorithm detects such objects before copying

28 Related work MCC [Smith et. al 98] –Pins objects referred from ambiguous root –Always manage locations of ambiguous root by a list C-libraries have to register/unregister ambiguous root each time they malloc/free Our algorithm finds ambiguous root by tracing at the beginning of GC

29 Related work Ruby 1.9 –Reduce the size of additional heap to 16KB (i.e., heap is expanded by the 16KB block) –Increase the opportunity for releasing Objects become distributed all over the heap as execution advances –We compact the heap

30 Conclusion Implemented mostly-copying GC on Ruby VM –Modify the algorithm for memory efficiency Evaluated its implementation –Shirked the heap after those phases of a program where it temporary uses a lot of memory –Elapsed time to execute benchmarks is comparable to traditional VM

31 Extra slides

32 Heap size (with Ruby 1.9) (MB) checkpoint Black line: amount of live objects Our VM YARV Ruby 1.9 Increase as time spends (even Ruby 1.9)

33 Benchmark Program 2 2.times { ary = Array.new times { |i| ary[i] = Array.new (1..100).each {|j| ary[i][j-1] = 1.to_f / j.to_f } if (i % 100 == 0) then CP() end } times { |i| ary[i] = nil if (i % 100 == 0) then CP() end } times { |i| 100.times{ } if (i % 100 == 0) then CP() end } sum = 0 ary[i].each {|x| sum+=x} ary[i] = sum Make some long-lifetime objects during decreasing phase

34 Heap size (benchmark 2) (MB) checkpoint YARV Our VM Ruby 1.9

35 (%) Relative elapsed time of the VM with Bartletts Algorithm. (Relative to traditional VM)

36 Related work Generational GC for Ruby [Kiyama 01] –Generational Mark-Sweep GC Reduced GC time Uses much memory –All objects have extra two words (double-linked list) for representing generations –Mostly-Copying GC can divide space for generations [Bartlett et. al 89]


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