Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byChristian Patterson Modified over 3 years ago

1
Z-Plane Analysis DR. Wajiha Shah

2
Content Introduction z-Transform Zeros and Poles Region of Convergence Important z-Transform Pairs Inverse z-Transform z-Transform Theorems and Properties System Function

3
The z-Transform Introduction

4
Why z-Transform? A generalization of Fourier transform Why generalize it? – FT does not converge on all sequence – Notation good for analysis – Bring the power of complex variable theory deal with the discrete-time signals and systems

5
The z-Transform z-Transform

6
Definition The z-transform of sequence x(n) is defined by Let z = e j. Fourier Transform

7
z-Plane Re Im z = e j Fourier Transform is to evaluate z-transform on a unit circle.

8
z-Plane Re Im X(z)X(z) Re Im z = e j

9
Periodic Property of FT Re Im X(z)X(z) X(e j ) Can you say why Fourier Transform is a periodic function with period 2 ?

10
z-Plane Analysis Zeros and Poles

11
Definition Give a sequence, the set of values of z for which the z-transform converges, i.e., |X(z)|<, is called the region of convergence. ROC is centered on origin and consists of a set of rings.

12
Example: Region of Convergence Re Im ROC is an annual ring centered on the origin. r

13
Stable Systems Re Im 1 A stable system requires that its Fourier transform is uniformly convergent. Fact: Fourier transform is to evaluate z-transform on a unit circle. A stable system requires the ROC of z-transform to include the unit circle.

14
Example: A right sided Sequence 12345678910-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 n x(n)x(n)...

15
Example: A right sided Sequence For convergence of X(z), we require that

16
a a Example: A right sided Sequence ROC for x(n)=a n u(n) Re Im 1 a a Re Im 1 Which one is stable?

17
Example: A left sided Sequence 12345678910-2-3-4-5-6-7-8 n x(n)x(n)...

18
Example: A left sided Sequence For convergence of X(z), we require that

19
a a Example: A left sided Sequence ROC for x(n)= a n u( n 1) Re Im 1 a a Re Im 1 Which one is stable?

20
The z-Transform Region of Convergence

22
Example: A right sided Sequence Re Im a ROC is bounded by the pole and is the exterior of a circle.

23
Example: A left sided Sequence Re Im a ROC is bounded by the pole and is the interior of a circle.

24
Example: Sum of Two Right Sided Sequences Re Im 1/2 1/3 1/12 ROC is bounded by poles and is the exterior of a circle. ROC does not include any pole.

25
Example: A Two Sided Sequence Re Im 1/2 1/3 1/12 ROC is bounded by poles and is a ring. ROC does not include any pole.

26
Example: A Finite Sequence Re Im ROC: 0 < z < ROC does not include any pole. N-1 poles N-1 zeros Always Stable

27
Properties of ROC A ring or disk in the z-plane centered at the origin. The Fourier Transform of x(n) is converge absolutely iff the ROC includes the unit circle. The ROC cannot include any poles Finite Duration Sequences: The ROC is the entire z-plane except possibly z=0 or z=. Right sided sequences: The ROC extends outward from the outermost finite pole in X(z) to z=. Left sided sequences: The ROC extends inward from the innermost nonzero pole in X(z) to z=0.

28
More on Rational z-Transform Re Im abc Consider the rational z-transform with the pole pattern: Find the possible ROCs

29
More on Rational z-Transform Re Im abc Consider the rational z-transform with the pole pattern: Case 1: A right sided Sequence.

30
More on Rational z-Transform Re Im abc Consider the rational z-transform with the pole pattern: Case 2: A left sided Sequence.

31
More on Rational z-Transform Re Im abc Consider the rational z-transform with the pole pattern: Case 3: A two sided Sequence.

32
More on Rational z-Transform Re Im abc Consider the rational z-transform with the pole pattern: Case 4: Another two sided Sequence.

33
The z-Transform Important z-Transform Pairs

34
Z-Transform Pairs Sequencez-TransformROC All z All z except 0 (if m>0) or (if m<0)

35
Z-Transform Pairs Sequencez-TransformROC

36
The z-Transform Inverse z-Transform

37
The z-Transform z-Transform Theorems and Properties

38
Linearity Overlay of the above two ROCs

39
Shift

40
Multiplication by an Exponential Sequence

41
Differentiation of X(z)

42
Conjugation

43
Reversal

44
Real and Imaginary Parts

45
Initial Value Theorem

46
Convolution of Sequences

48
The z-Transform System Function

49
Shift-Invariant System h(n)h(n) h(n)h(n) x(n)x(n) y(n)=x(n)*h(n) X(z)X(z)Y(z)=X(z)H(z) H(z)H(z)

50
Shift-Invariant System H(z)H(z) H(z)H(z) X(z)X(z) Y(z)Y(z)

51
N th -Order Difference Equation

52
Representation in Factored Form Contributes poles at 0 and zeros at c r Contributes zeros at 0 and poles at d r

53
Stable and Causal Systems Re Im Causal Systems : ROC extends outward from the outermost pole.

54
Stable and Causal Systems Re Im Stable Systems : ROC includes the unit circle. 1

55
Example Consider the causal system characterized by Re Im 1 a

56
Determination of Frequency Response from pole-zero pattern A LTI system is completely characterized by its pole-zero pattern. Example: Re Im z1z1 p1p1 p2p2

57
Determination of Frequency Response from pole-zero pattern A LTI system is completely characterized by its pole-zero pattern. Example: Re Im z1z1 p1p1 p2p2 |H(e j )|=? H(e j )=?

58
Determination of Frequency Response from pole-zero pattern A LTI system is completely characterized by its pole-zero pattern. Example: Re Im z1z1 p1p1 p2p2 |H(e j )|=? H(e j )=? |H(e j )| = | 1 2 3 H(e j ) = 1 ( 2 + 3 )

59
Example Re Im a dB

Similar presentations

Presentation is loading. Please wait....

OK

The Fourier Transform I

The Fourier Transform I

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on nuclear power in india Ppt on monopolistic business model Ppt on diodes and transistors projects Ppt on family planning methods Ppt on eisenmenger syndrome lungs Ppt on garbage collection in java Ppt on conservation of momentum examples Animated ppt on magnetism quiz Ppt on charge coupled device patent Ppt on csa of cylinder