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Made by pupils of 3 A B Erica – 2D Relazioni Internazionali Teacher contact : Franca Miserocchi ITSC « A.LOPERFIDO » Matera, 30 Mai 2012 PROGETTO COMENIUS.

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Presentation on theme: "Made by pupils of 3 A B Erica – 2D Relazioni Internazionali Teacher contact : Franca Miserocchi ITSC « A.LOPERFIDO » Matera, 30 Mai 2012 PROGETTO COMENIUS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Made by pupils of 3 A B Erica – 2D Relazioni Internazionali Teacher contact : Franca Miserocchi ITSC « A.LOPERFIDO » Matera, 30 Mai 2012 PROGETTO COMENIUS MULTILATERALE –EPEITE Ecole - Patrimoine - Esprit Initiative Touristique - Europe « «This project has been founded with the support of the European Commission. This publication and communication reflects only the views of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsable for any use which may be made of the information contained therein». Gheorghe Zampir: Memory 1

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3 The coat of arms of Romania was adopted by the Parliament on 10 september 1992. In the centre it shows an eagle, symbol of the Latin origins, holding a cross in its beak, the Christianly, and a mace and a sword in its claws. The blue background represents the sky. The shield that protects the eagle is divided in five parts, each one for a Romanian historical region and its traditional symbol: a golden eagle, Wallachia; an aurochs Moldavia; two dolphins Dobrogea; a turul, seven castles, a sun and a moon Transylvania; a lion and a bridge Oltenia and Banat. If you look at the Romanian coat of arms you understand the country and its history: pride, determination and courage. Visiting BUCOVINA you visit the region the most traditional and most attached to the history. A LITTL A LITTLE GEOGRAPHY : 3

4 BUKOVINA, whose name, appears only at the end of 1700, indicates one of the most remote place in Romania. This province in the north-east, encircled by Moldavia and Ukraine, is known like the land of beech forests and its certainly one of the most green areas of this part of Europe where there are wide valleys and rich rivers that compete with the amazing and famous Swiss landscapes. But its for folklore, art and architecture that this region is worth a visit. The folklore is the combination of different traditions of the people who lived there in the past and of the culture of foreign powers which occupied this place that wasnt associated with Romanians, but also with Hungarians, Czechs, Poles and Ukrainians, and administrated by Austrian Empire. Art and architecture, are concentrated in its particular monastery, painted inside and outside. To the mountains in an absolute peace you can admire, as anywhere in the world, religious buildings that have an extraordinary pictorial wealth protected by the UNESCO as World heritage. The monasteries that date from the XV and the XVI century are about a dozen, and are built by Stephen III of Moldavia (1457-1504) to remember the battles won and the glorious exploits. A very rich collection that can be all admired by those that havent problems of time. However you must visit three monasteries. 4

5 1.The monastery of Sucevita, wealthy of Gothic and Byzantine architectonic features and defended by a massive wall 2.The monastery of Voronet, for the beauty of its paintings, among them Oriental Sistine Chapel 3.The monastery of Moldovita Moldovita monastery with painting inside and outside like Fall of Constantinople Tree of Jesse, where the principal colour is the yellowBuilt as burial place for wealthy families the monastery and the churches were after painted. The artists, no one of them became famous, started to paint biblical scenes and picture of Mary and Jesus Christ. At the beginning were painted only the inner walls of the churches, after it was decided to paint also the outside walls and since that moment this became a custom. This double portrayal had two aims: spread the Orthodox religion and give religious education to the peasant population. In each monastery we can find the same pictures but every monastery have a characteristic of colour. The experts talk about Voronet blue, Sucevita green and red, Moldovita yellow and Humor red. 5

6 So lets start our travel from the Voronet Monastery, one of the most beautiful Orthodox churches in Europe, called Oriental Sistine Chapel because its frescos are very important and famous in European art. The current stone church dates back to 1488.It replaced a previous one made of wood, that was built by Stefan the Greats willing to thank after a victory against the Turks. The church, which is consacrated to Saint George, is really beautiful and represents an original mixture of Byzantine, Gothic and local architectonic features. The inner is frescoed and the blue is the main colour, but is the outside that dulls with its chromatic wealth like Voronet blue, as famous in art as the red of Tiziano or as the green of Veronese. The usual holy themes are the real and simple why to understand catechism for the population, and it is here that The last judgement, painted on the outside of all the churches in Bucovina, which reach the top of beauty. 6

7 Its grandiose, it covers the whole western front, and its wealth of characters and meanings. You will be enchanted in front of such splendour and you will imagine those artists effort to get those colours: the yellow from the saffron, the light blue from the lapislazulis, the red from the trees of madder; you will imagine the alchemy that they needed to obtain the shades, the precision and the quickness to paint all pictures without the possibility of rethinking… The colours beauty, the precision of the technique help you to understand the eschatology mystery that those artists had represented in a good way. You can only be dazzled in the presence of such splendour. 7

8 Sucevita Monastery Our journey continues through woods and fields and leads into a lovely green valley where stands the monastery of Sucevita: you Cannnot help caught bbeing an indescribable feeling... a myriad of characters and situations, and biblical stories of saints, a fantastic glance, all the walls "talk" to tell of a faith rooted in the need for transcendence that every man feels at any latitude and longitude... the signs are clear, well marked, the colors still vivid, despite the inevitable weathering of nearly five centuries. The Monastery of Sucevita is considered "the will Moldavian art" and is also the largest of the painted monasteries of Bucovina, surrounded by massive walls with guard towers at the four corners. 8

9 Among the frescoes of the church, all very well preserved, what stands out is the representation of the Ladder of Virtues in which virtuous are supported by angels while the damned rush into the arms of a devil laughing in a symbolic struggle between good and evil and on the south wall appears the Tree of Life. Tourists surprised by so much beauty and figurative color while standing wander from one drawing to another, discovering special effects, standing on the representation afther Akathist Hymn to the Virgin. Lower down, there is the Siege of Constantinople and the procession of prophets It seems to see paraded before our eyes, so great is the skill with which were also represented by several complete revolutions around the church dedicated to the Resurrection. 9

10 The Monastery of Sucevita Sucevita Monastery is the burial place of the family of Movila. The monastery's museum is of great value and displays among other things, certain pieces of embroidery made of gold and silver, silk and pearls dating from the fifteenth or sixteenth century. Most important are the portraits of Ieremia and Simion Movila embroidered with pearls and an epitaph. Sucevita Monastery is one of five monasteries that have received the Golden Apple Award by the International Journalists for historical value. 10

11 The Monastery of Moldovita Moldovita Monastery was built between 1402 and 1410 by Alexander the Good. Collapsed because of a landslide in the early sixteenth century the monastery was rebuilt in 1532 by the ruler Petru Rares that has surrounded it with turrets and high walls of protection. The present abbey church was rebuilt in 1532 and has been dedicated to the Annunciation, outside two apses. A detail that makes it unique is that next to the saints in the frescoes of classical culture characters as Pythagoras and Sophocles are represented, and, also, the frescoes are characterized by a dominant shade from red to yellow-ocher... The Moldovita Monastery, as well as that of Sucevita has a valuable museum which proudly displays the Golden Apple, a prize presented by the International Association of Journalists in all five Moldavian monasteries in recognition of artistic and cultural value of the frescoes on external walls. Do not forget also to visit the museum, housed in Clisarnita, voivodale residence built in 1612, which contains the carved throne of the voivode and precious manuscripts 11

12 Do not forget also to visit the museum, housed in Clisarnita, voivodale residence built in 1612, which contains the carved throne of the voivode and precious manuscripts. Finally we visit the nearby studio of ceramic black Marginea. The archaeological finds of pottery dating back, already, at the Bronze Age. Today's ceramics Marginea are reproduced by hand in a local laboratory. The geographical position of Marginea, surrounded by forests, crossed by the river Sucevita and its clayed land are the main conditions for the artistic creation of this product. Clay. fire and water combine to create a unique and magical product that managed to survive despite the political problems it has encountered. In fact, before the Communist regime in Marginea there were about 60 families who worked the clay. But during the communist regime the possession of a lathe was a crime, so many potters have given up this art and have continued to work in secret. Only later, the communists tried to renew this tradition. Having destroyed the lathes for the creation of these products it was not easy to revive this tradition since the Era of the Dacians, who used the jars for food storage. The decor traditional techniques and the forms are manifold: the high pot, the pot with two ears, bowls of various sizes etc... However, the artisans, unable to profit from this useful activity, are disappearing. And to finish our dive in the past, why not visit a house where you will see Romanian inside a typical house that still preserves the Bukovina customs and traditions of the past.

13 Getting there To be able to run all the major monasteries a nice idea is to join a guided tour that starts from the main centers, such as Suceava or Gura Humorului. Public transport does not allow to reach all sites. We recommend an even better solution: organize a course in your rental car, so you can also visit the villages more distant from the traditional routes of the region in this case you can go directly to Bucharest by plane (flights from Italy Alitalia, Tarom, Windjet, Blue Air, Wizz, Meridiana, easyJet, On Air) or Cluj (Wizz, Blue Air) and from there travel by car to the north. A convenient alternative, which provides, however, a stop in Timisoara, the Austrian Airlines offers direct flights to Suceava. Accomodation The phrase «chez lhabitant» is an enriching experience, definitely, that allows you not only to know the area but also to share the people daily life. Many farm houses offer a limited number of rooms, but all equipped in the traditional style of the region, all renewed, adapted to receive guests and you can also opt to participate to agricultural work as you can enjoy the real traditional life of local people. So, a must is a night in the farm. 13

14 It is one of the remotest corners (coins perdus) of Romania, It is located in the northeast of the country, set between Ukraine and Moldova, of which it was the capital from 1388 until 1565. It 'a great starting point for visiting the many historical, cultural, and natural attractions and the several painted monasteries of the whole region. The attractions for a comfortable visit to the charming Rumanian town are miscellaneous. We can mention the Santa Croce church, San Simon and the church of San Giorgio which is a World Heritage Site. The St. George church hosts the relics of St. John the Nou which are placed in a silver case, richly decorated with scenes from the saint's life. The exceptional exterior paintings of the church, showing scenes from the Old and New Testament, was completed in 1534 a very important period for the glorious era of religious murals. 14

15 Piata 22 Decembrie Represents the center of the city, this square is overlook interesting buildings, such as the House of Culture" A PRINCELY INN The city also boasts a princely court built in the late 14 th century whose fortress was extended and strengthened to hold off the invaders Ottoman Turks. Stephen the Great has made add the moat, the high defensive walls and towers that allowed it to resist up to 1675 when it was blown up by the Turks. Today, visitors can visit the ruins of massive fortifications and enjoy a wonderful view over the city. The Village Museum of Bukovina (Muzeul Satului Bucovinean) is located nearby the royal court, this open air museum is a collection of 80 buildings representing the history and design of rural architecture of Bukovina, including a small church of the 18th century from Vama and a typical mill of Gura Humorului. To visit: 15

16 The Bucovina Ethnographic Museum offers a complete collection of folk and traditional costumes, it is located in the inn of kings (Hanul Domnesc) and its one of the oldest buildings in Suceava characterized by thick stone walls and vaulted ceilings dating the late XVI century. The inn has long served as a popular meeting place for the nobles who were returning from which hunting in the dense forests of Suceava, from this takes its name. The History Museum of Bukovina, shows the medieval armor, coins, arms, tools and ancient documents. The throne room is a reconstruction of Stephen the Great court with furniture, weapons and costumes. Its dedicated to the knowledge of woods, forest, ethnography, history and folk art of the region. You can visit the unusual museum of wooden spoon nearby the town, and the museum of carving on wood. 16

17 City known as the "Rome" in Romania, because of the beauty and harmony of its seven hills on which it stands, Iaşi is the main center of Moldavia, with more than 300,000 inhabitants. The whole district has always given rise to a variety of educational, scientific and cultural activities so that this area is called the Museum of Romania where there is also the oldest university in the country. In the town there are also 5 public and 3 private universities, seating in the all university center about 60,000 students. There are more than 50 churches and cultural British, French, German, Greek, Latin, American & Caribbean centers and the cultural life turns around the National Theatre (the oldest one in Romania), the Opera House, the State Philharmonic, the Botanical Garden (the oldest and largest one in Romania), the Central University Library (the oldest one in Romania). The Opera House 17

18 MUSEUMS The many museums in Iasi are often set in buildings which are very interesting from the point of view of art and architecture such as the flamboyant Gothic "Palace of Culture" (true symbol of the cultural vitality of the city) which houses four museums and a library. In designing this building, the architect, Ion Berindei, who has attended the best faculties of Paris, has modeled on the town hall of the French capital. Symbol of the city, this huge building now houses: The History Museum, where you can admire the painted pottery of the Cucuteni civilization (3500-3000 BC); The Ethnographic Museum which combine a collection of tools that tell the Moldovan trades such pastoral life, and manufacture of iron objects, fishing, textiles, pottery, etc.. The Museum Techniques which shows collection of musical equipment; The Museum of Arts, which presents Romanians artists such as Nicolae Grigorescu, Octav Bancila, Camil Ressu or Gheorghe Vânâtoru. 18

19 In the square Eminescu, in the period between the first and second World War, the Royal Cultural Foundation building was constructed; now it houses the Central University Library which has about 3 million books of which some very rare, dedicated to the greatest Rumanian poet Mihai Eminescu who lived there for some years of his life. The cathedral Trei Ierarhi dedicated to the three leaders of the Church (St. Basil of Caesarea, St. John Chrysostom and St. Gregory the Miracle Worker), example of Orthodox building, built in the classic scheme of Moldavian tradition, with a clover-shaped plant was built in 1635-39 by Prince Vasile Lupu. The outside decoration consists in a spectacular lace carved in stone, the result of a mixture of elements from various sources: The interior was designed by the French André Lecomte de Nouy, who at the end of the nineteenth century, deleted the paintings and covered the room with gilded decorations, mixing traditional designs with the Art Nouveau style. In this church there are the graves of three great figures of Moldovas history: Vasile Lupu, church founder, Dimitrie Cantemir, voivode and scholar, and Alexandru Ioan Cuza, politician and leader of the revolution of 1848. 19

20 PLACES TO VISIT: Piata Unirii The Union Square, reserved to foot traffic, is the main town square, a walk would let you admire the aesthetics of the building which houses the Hotel Traian, dating back to 1882. At the center of the square stands the monument to Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. In the square there are is also the Theatre Museum and in a short distance you can visit the Natural History Museum.. Equestrian Statue of Stephen the Great Stephen the Great-Stefan Cel Mare-famous Romanian captain and fearless defender of the Moldovan border dominates, with its statue, the center of the great Culture Square. The imposing Palace of Culture is impressive for its size. Inside it you will find the National Complexul muzeal Moldova, composed of four museums: history, science and technology, art and ethnography museum. The palace, built in the period 1906-1925, is the creation of the architect ID Berindei. The building is located, partially, on the ruins of a medieval court, whose foundations were partly used for the Royal Palace, built in 1812. The most popular room is the Hall of the Princes of the palace on the upper floor. It takes its name from the hall-gallery of portraits of rulers and kings of Moldova. The famous palace also has a clock with chimes located in the central tower of the building. The eight bells in the tower play the all day the Horites Union chords and the national anthem of 1859. 20

21 GRADINA COPOU Its a public park of about 80 acres located on the homonymous hill where there is also the largest botanical garden founded in Romania in 1856. We suggest you to visit two halls: the greenhouses with tropical plants, cactus, orchids and carnivorous plants and a rose garden, where they presented more than 800 varieties of roses from around the world. Its a unique collection in Romania and it is recognized by the Federation "The World Federation of Rose Societies". The Visitor, at the end of this excursion, feels satisfied not only for the diversity of shapes colors and fragrances but also for the impressive panorama of the various species grown here. Located in the middle of the Copou garden, linden "Mihai Eminescu",whose plant has become the symbol of Iasi, deserves a visit. A place of pilgrimage for the most romantic. 21

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23 The palace, built in the period 1906-1925, is the creation of the architect ID Berindei. The building is located, partially, on the ruins of a medieval court, whose foundations were partly used for the Royal Palace, built in 1812. The most popular room is the Hall of the Princes of the palace on the upper floor. It takes its name from the hall-gallery of portraits of rulers and kings of Moldova. The famous palace also has a clock with chimes located in the central tower of the building. The eight bells in the tower play the all day the Horites Union chords and the national anthem of 1859. The palace of culture 23

24 The Rumanian national cuisine belongs to the Balkan tradition It loves the spices and the bitter-sweet. The produced of the earth are cooked in simple way and it doesn't mind the presentation of the dishes wich maintain a rather rustic aspect as the delicious soup of vegetables called ciorba. The first dishes consumed in the whole country equal to our soups. But how can we explain the delicious t aste of simple carrots and potatoes. To know it, it is enough to cross the landscapes of Transylvania where agriculture is manually practiced and without the use of chemical fertilizers. One of popular the specialties and national dish of Rumanian is theMĂMĂLIGA, a pie of corn that resembles a lot to the polenta and it serves accompanying a lot of dishes and you eat it with the gilded onions in frying pan, with the eggs and fresh cheese.MĂMĂLIGA 24

25 The Wallachia cuisine Each Rumanian region, however, has its own specialties. The Wallachia cuisine holds many tasty surprises for us. In fact, for historical and cultural reasons, it was born thanks to an excellent combination of Romanian, German and Hungarian flavors. Wallachia is famous for beans stewed chicken soup, baked mackerels, plum dishes, spezzatini, ground meat and the saraili, a puff pastry with walnuts and honey. The musacá (pork chops meat spiced with garlic and chili), sausages are the symbol of Oltenia and appetizers, called gustari, which are particularly delicious, include the de vinete tocate Salata (eggplant flame), other traditional dishes are stuffed carp with vegetables, smoked ham and beans. Sarmale Mititei Musacá 25

26 You can't miss the bacon boiled in brine, smoked pork ribs, smoked cheese, spicy sausages, sauerkraut "in Cluj", spicy pork fillet and goulash. Meals are usually accompanied by ŢUICĂ, a triple distillation of fruit served as an aperitif to "open the stomach" to begin a meal with the characteristic toast. It has special flavors, fruity and velvety, heated on high flame and mixed with sugar and black pepper its a really unique drink. PASCA And as for dessert, you have a wide choice: if you manage to finish a meal and feel the desire to eat. Remember indeed that the portions that will be served will be more than abundant PAPANASI COZONAC 26

27 27 What about wine!? Good and cheap!! The country has extensive vineyards located in the areas most varied and is among the top 10 world producers of wine, appreciated by experts. The favorable climate conditions and the ideals and myths of some areas make Wallachia, a manufacturer of light wines and dry, reds and whites, like Sauvignon Blanc, Feteasca Alba o Neagra, Merlot, Cabernet, all French import vines that are enriched by the local flavors of flowers, herbs and roots of various plants or trees. Did you know that in Cricova there is the largest winery in the world where travelers can walk the streets of a real underground city of wine. The total length of underground roads is more than 100 km. Good, excellent, the beer, a complete surprise: Romanians are large consumers and Craiova has a great tradition and it is here that the HEINNEKEN has a production site. A bit of etiquette. At table don't feel obligated to clean your plate: you may pretend that you're still hungry, same carefulness to your glass, if it is empty, fill it now! At the end of the meal it is a truly chivalry to compliment the hostess with a very nice formula: "Sãrut mana pentru masa" ("I kiss your hands for this meal"). Which will be answered: what is good for you....!your hands for this meal"). Which will be answered: that is good for you....!

28 The cultural panorama of Romania doesn't end here. in fact, we can't forget the folklore Romania has a style of life that, in the West Countries, it is lost more than one century ago and that constitutes a fascinating contrast with the other territories where there is an international tourism. In fact, the Rumanian folklore is probably the most original and traditional of the whole Europe. The music, the folk dances and the traditional choreographies are well known abroad. The folklore is a moment of meeting, of sharing of emotions, of problems, of common feelings. The folklore is the soul of every country and in Romania these feelings don't miss. Songs and popular dances such as the '' doini" of the "haidouk '', the '' hora '', the '' braul '', the '' calusari '', performed with violins, accordions, clarinets, harmonic and flutes (di Pan), are the expression of the beliefs and the legends of the old Rumanian folklore. 28

29 This is the reason for which we recommend you to listen to numerous Rumanian groups, Oltenias typical songs, Valacchias and Transylvanias involving dances, the unique rhythms of the Moldova and the Banato. After listening to the new songs characterized by a rap and "bad boy", we recommend you to listen to one of the greatest interpreters of the flute (di Pan): GHEORGHE ZAMPHIR Rumanian music has popular origin characteristics created during the time and assuming an atmosphere that only bylistening it can be appreciated..GHEORGHE ZAMPHIR 29

30 A trip in Romania, especially in the regions far from to greatest cities, is a complete discovery of the ancient traditions and customs. Usually, these feasts are tied up to the succession of the seasons and the agricultural works in the past, such as the feast of the reaping, of the first one treats of the sheep and of the vintage. They can be also of the Christian feasts that go back to the ancient pagans rites. The Rumanian people, very devoted to their traditions, participate numerous and warmly to these moments. At New Year, it is traditional the "colinda" during which children go from house house to wish good year, singing and offering crowns of flowers. Instead, on March 1 (martisor), men offer to women a small mascot tied to a red and white thread: those ones who wear the "martisor", will be fortunate and will have good health. In the past, the "martisor" was made with two wool threads, one white and one red or black, that where the symbols of the two principal seasons: winter and summer. 30

31 Women used to make it to tie it to the wrist or to the neck of their children. It was also tied on the cows horns or on the stalls door to protect the house of the bad spirits. The red color, that of the fire, of the blood and of the sun, was attributed to life, therefore to the woman. The white color instead, remembers the transparency of the water and the white of the clouds and was attributed to the wisdom of man. These colors express the inseparable bond of nature with all of its vital strength. Usually, the "martisor" is offered with a bunch of snowdrop, first wild flower that blooms after the winter. Symbol of purity, the snowdrop is also the symbol of the sun and spring victory on the winter. In Romania, love is celebrated twice a year: the S. Valentine Day, on February 14, and also on February 24, when it is famous the old Rumanian feast of love, the "dragobete, is celebrated 31

32 32 The name "dragobete" derives from the word "drag", that is "dear" in Rumanian, It is the name of the rural god of the love represented as a fast, strong, good and beautiful youth. Its to this god that the feast is devoted. ''Dragobete '' is also the feast symbol of the spring, of the awakening of nature and fertility. According to the tradition, the boys and the girls have to celebrate the dragobete to fall in love themselves the whole year. In the past, the feast was an opportunity to declare ones own love in front of the whole community. In fact if you were kissed in public it meant that your engagement was official.

33 Romania is symbol of : culture, history, spirituality, nature, sport, traditions, legends, adventure, relax, luxury, refined and rustic kitchen... leave with us to see, to discover and to know a magic country. 33

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