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This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test. Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton) Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton)

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Presentation on theme: "This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test. Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton) Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton)"— Presentation transcript:

1 This file reviews materials in Exercises 9, 10, 11 and it prepares students for the coming lab test. Ex. 9 (Appendicular skeleton) Ex. 10 (Fetal skeleton) Ex. 11 (Articulations and body movements) by Dr. Shaw, Zoology 251 Lab Coordinator, x7176; 1

2 Ex. 9: Appendicular skeleton 2

3 Required bones and markings are highlighted in 3 different colors-- 1. Individual bones in green 3. Depressions, passages, and cavities in red (fissure, foramen, fossa, sinus, etc.) 2. Articulations, extensions, and projections in yellow (condyle, crest, facet, process, etc.) 3

4 Superior angle Acromion Spine Acromion Inferior angle The right scapula; Anterior view The right scapula; Posterior view Suprascapular notch Coracoid process Glenoid Cavity (Fossa) Anterior surface Lateral border Medial border Superior border Supraspinous fossa Lateral angle Posterior surface Right vs. Left --In order to determine if a scapula is right or left, orient it so the glenoid cavity (articulating surface) faces laterally (outward) and the spine is posterior (toward back) and superior (upper). The coracoid process should be anterior and superior. The spine points at 2 o’clock ( Right side of the clock) for the right scapula, and at 10 o’clock ( Left side of the clock) for the left scapula. 4

5 5 Practice 01 Name the bone above: _________; left or right side of body? ________; Right scapula

6 Acromial (lateral) end Sternal end Right vs. Left -- Orient the clavicle so the smooth (no grooves and ridges) superior surface faces up. Then, the rounded sternal (medial) end should face medially while the broad and flat acromial (lateral) end faces laterally. Finally, the medial half of the clavicle should bulge OUT (convex anteriorly) first followed by its lateral half bulges IN (concave posteriorly). Is the above clavicle from the left or right side of the body? 6 Right

7 A right scapula or left scapula (as shown below)? A right clavicle or left clavicle (as shown above)? 7 Practice 02 Right scapula and left clavicle

8 Capitulum Head Trochlea Humerus; anterior view Humerus; posterior view Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Intertubercular sulcus Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa Radial fossa Lateral epicondyle Surgical neck Greater tubercle Anatomical neck Nutrient foramen Deltoid tuberosity Medial supracondylar ridge Medial epicondyle Lateral supracondylar ridge Lateral epicondyle Olecranon fossa 8

9 Name the bone above. ____________ 9 Practice 03

10 Right vs. Left -- First orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline). Then you will need to determine the anterior vs. posterior side. On the humerus, look for the deep olecranon fossa on the posterior side (where the olecranon process of the ulna fits in when the elbow is straightened). The specimen below is from the right side. 10

11 Olecranon (process) (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view Articular facets Ulna Radius Ulnar tuberosity Coronoid process Trochlear notch Radial notch of ulna Head of radius Neck of radius Radial tuberosity Styloid process Interosseous borders Interosseous membrane Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process Head of radius Neck of radius 11

12 (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Practice 04 12

13 I IIIIIIVV Distal phalanx II Middle phalanx II Proximal phalanx II Head Body Base Hamulus of hamate Hamate Pisiform Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium Body Head Scaphoid Base Phalanges (fingers) Key to carpal bones Distal row Proximal row Distal phalanx I Proximal phalanx I First metacarpal Carpal bones Metacarpals (palms) I-V Carpals (wrist) bones The right wrist and hand, anterior (palmar, ventral) view Pollex Mnemonic for carpal bones– S ally L eft T he P arty (proximal row); T o T ake C harlie H ome (distal row) 13

14 Key to carpal bones Distal row Proximal row The right wrist and hand, anterior (palmar, ventral) view 14 Practice 05

15 Ilium Ischium Coccyx Body Ischial ramus Pubis The pelvis (two coxal/hip bones and the sacrum); anterosuperior view Pubic symphysis Acetabulum Ischial spine Pelvic inlet Sacroiliac joint Body Superior ramus Inferior ramus Iliac crest Iliac fossa Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Base of sacrum Pelvic surface of sacrum Interpubic disc Obturator foramen Each coxal/hip bone is formed by three bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. 15 Pubic crest

16 ID this bone— The pelvis (two coxal/hip bones and the sacrum); anterosuperior view ID this bone— 16 Practice 06

17 Male Female   Pubic arch Obturator foramen Pelvic inlet Pelvic brim 17

18 A right or left hip bone (as shown)? Right hip bone 18 Practice 07 Right vs. Left -- In order to determine if a hip bone is right or left, place the bone on yourself with the iliac crest superior, hold it with acetabulum facing laterally (outward), and the obturator foramen inferior (down). Now all you need to do is determine which side is anterior vs. posterior, which can be done by looking for the rough pubic symphysis (anterior) that is at the midline to meet its fellow hip bone of the other side.

19 IliumIschiumPubis Greater sciatic notch Ischial spine Ischial tuberosity Body of ischium Lesser sciatic notch Iliac crest Body of ilium Body of pubis Inferior gluteal line Posterior gluteal line Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Acetabulum Ischial ramus Anterior gluteal line Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Superior ramus of pubis Inferior ramus of pubis Obturator foramen Right coxal bone, lateral view 19

20 IliumIschiumPubis Right coxal bone, lateral view 20 Practice 08

21 Greater sciatic notch Iliac crest Arcuate line Ischial spine Iliac fossa Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Location of pubic symphysis Posterior superior iliac spine Auricular surface Posterior inferior iliac spine Obturator foramen Ischial ramus 21 Pubic crest Right coxal bone, medial view

22 22 Right coxal bone, medial view Practice 09

23 Greater trochanter Intertrochanteric line Lateral epicondyle Patellar surface (b) Posterior view Lateral epicondyle Medial supracondylar line Lateral condyle Linea aspera Intertrochanteric crest Gluteal tuberosity Greater trochanter Head Fovea capitis Neck Lesser trochanter Spiral line Shaft Medial epicondyle Popliteal surface Medial condyle Intercondylar fossa Patella Articular facets Apex of patella Lateral supracondylar line (a) Anterior view 23

24 Posterior view Right vs. Left -- In order to distinguish right from left, first orient the bones so that the rounded head is superior (up) and pointing medially (toward the body's midline). Then you will need to determine the anterior vs. posterior side. On the femur, look for the patellar surface, which is anterior. Also note how the articulating surfaces of the condyles extends far back on the posterior side (since the knee bends back but not forward). The specimen below is from the right side. ID the bone— Practice 10 24

25 Lateral condyle Apex Head of fibula Intercondylar eminence Lateral surface Distal tibiofibular joint Lateral malleolus Fibula Anterior border (crest) Lateral malleolus (b) Posterior view Proximal tibiofibular joint Tibia Medial malleolus Medial condyle Tibial tuberosity Interosseous membrane (a) Anterior view 25 Mnemonic for location of tibia and fibula: The fibuLA is LAteral.

26 Anterior view Right vs. Left -- You need to tell right from left for the tibia. To do so, first orient the tibia so that the larger flatter end is superior (up). The anterior border (crest or shin) should of course be anterior (front). Finally, the medial side can be determined by the medial malleolus (remember that the malleoli bracket the ankle and since the tibia is the medial bone of the lower limb, its malleolus must be medial). A right tibia is shown below. Practice 11 26

27 Key to tarsal bones Distal group Proximal group Distal phalanx I Proximal phalanx I Metatarsal Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform Navicular Talus Superior (dorsal) view Calcaneus Cuboid V IV III II I Trochlear surface of talus Tuberosity of calcaneus Proximal phalanx V Middle phalanx V Distal phalanx V Tarsal bones Hallux Mnemonic for tarsal bones– CAn TALented NAVal MEDIcs INTERest LAzy CUBscouts? 27

28 Key to tarsal bones Distal group Proximal group Superior (dorsal) view Practice 12 28

29 Ex. 10: Fetal skeleton 29

30 Parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone Maxilla Mandible (a) Lateral view Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid fontanel Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Sphenoid bone Lambdoid suture Squamous suture Mastoid fontanel 30

31 Metopic suture Anterior fontanel Sagittal suture Posterior (occipital) fontanel (b) Superior view Parietal bone 31

32 (b) Superior view (a) Lateral view 32 Practice 13

33 Ex. 11: Articulations and body movements 33 Required structures are highlighted.

34 Periosteum Ligament Bone Proximal phalanx Joint cavity containing synovial fluid Fibrous capsule Articular cartilages Joint capsule Synovial membrane Middle phalanx 34

35 Femur Patellar surface Medial condyle Fibula Tibia Medial meniscus (a) Anterior view Lateral condyle Fibular collateral ligament Lateral meniscus Transverse ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Tibial collateral ligament Patellar ligament (cut) 35

36 (a) Anterior view 36 Practice 14

37 (b) Posterior view Femur Fibula Tibia Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Fibular collateral ligament Articular cartilage of tibia Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Medial meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament 37

38 Femur Meniscus Tibia Joint cavity Infrapatellar fat pad Synovial membrane Patellar ligament Patella Prepatellar bursa Articular cartilage Joint capsule (c) Sagittal section Bursa under lateral head of gastrocnemius Quadriceps femoris Quadriceps femoris tendon Suprapatellar bursa Superficial infrapatellar bursa Deep infrapatellar bursa 38

39 Medial meniscus Lateral meniscus (d) Superior view of tibia and menisci Posterior cruciate ligament Synovial membrane Medial condyle of tibia Anterior cruciate ligament Lateral condyle of tibia 39

40 Head of humerus Scapula 1.Ball-and-socket joints– Features: Smooth hemispherical head fits within a cuplike depression Examples: –(shoulder) head of humerus into glenoid cavity of scapula (shown below) –(hip) head of femur into acetabulum of hip bone 40

41 Phalanx Metacarpal bone 2. Condylar joints– Features: Oval convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on the next Examples: –radiocarpal joint of the wrist –metacarpophalangeal joints at the bases of the fingers (shown below) 41

42 Trapezium Metacarpal bone 3. Saddle joints– Features: Each articular surface is shaped like a saddle, concave in one direction and convex in the other bone (like a sitting rider) Example: –trapeziometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb (as shown below) 42

43 Carpal bones 4. Gliding (plane) joints— Features: Flat articular surfaces in which bones slide over each other Examples: –between the carpal bones of the wrist (shown below) –the tarsal bones of the ankle –articular processes of the vertebrae 43

44 Humerus Ulna 5. Hinge joints— Features: One bone with convex surface that fits into a concave depression on other bone Examples: –ulna and humerus at elbow joint (trochlea of the humerus fits into the trochlear notch of the ulna) (shown below) –femur and tibia at knee joint (tibiofemoral) 44

45 Ulna Radius 6. Pivot joints– Features: One bone rotates on its longitudinal axis relative to the other Examples: –proximal radioulnar joint; the radius pivots during pronation and supination (as shown below) –atlantoaxial joint (dens of axis to atlas) 45

46 (a) Extension Flexion (b) Extension Flexion Hyperextension (c) (d) Flexion Knee flexion Extension Hip flexion Hyperextension 46

47 (a) Abduction(b) Adduction Identify the body movements below. 47 Practice 15

48 (b) Lateral (external) rotation ( a) Medial (internal) rotation Identify the body movements below. 48 Practice 16

49 Identify the body movements below. Circumduction 49 Practice 17

50 (a) Supination(b) Pronation Identify the body movements below. 50 Practice 18

51 Dorsiflexion Zero position (c) Eversion(b) Inversion Plantar flexion (a) Flexion of ankle Identify the body movements below. 51 Practice 19

52 Models with KEYS 52

53 KEY CARD (Synovial joint of left knee)-- ALL are required terminologies. Educational + Scientific Products (ESP) in England (ZJY-940-J) 1. (in blue )– Articular cartilage; 2. (in white)-- Synovial membrane 3. Femur; 4. Tibia 5. Medial meniscus; 6. Lateral meniscus 7. (in green )-- Fibrous capsule (outside synovial membrane; together synovial membrane and fibrous capsule are called joint capsule) 8. (in red )-- Tibial collateral ligament 9. Sponge (cancellous) bone showing patterning of the bony trabeculae 10. Marrow cavity 53

54 1. Femur; 2a. Lateral condyle of femur; 2b. Medial condyle of femur; 3. Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament; 4a. Lateral meniscus; 4b. Medial meniscus; 5. Tibial (medial) collateral ligament; 6. Anterior cruciate ligament; 8. Patellar ligament; 9. Tibia; 10. Fibula; 11. Tendon of the quadriceps muscle; 12. location of patella (covered by tendon) Knee (Anterior view)—All are required terminologies. 54

55 Knee (Posterior view)– All are required terminologies 1. Femur; 2a. Medial condyle of femur; 2b. Lateral condyle of femur; 3. Fibular (lateral) collateral ligament; 4a. Lateral meniscus; 4b. Medial meniscus; 5. Tibial (medial) collateral ligament; 9. Tibia; 10. Fibula; 13a. Medial articular cartilage of tibia; 13b. Lateral articular cartilage of tibia; 14. Posterior cruciate ligament 55


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