Presentation on theme: "May 22-23, 2006 I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand. - Confucious."— Presentation transcript:
May 22-23, 2006 I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand. - Confucious
May 22-23, 2006 Active Learning: Motivating Students to Learn Dr. Theresa R. Moore
May 22-23, 2006 Outline of Plenary 1.Review goals of Title 3; 2.Course design; 3.What is active learning & why do it? 4.Learning theorists & learning styles; 5.Active learning and technology (Isaac).
May 22-23, 2006 Outcomes of the workshop Faculty will… Know basic concepts related to a cognitive approach to learning styles; Understand basic premises of active learning; Engage in active learning with their peers; Work individually and with their programs on purposeful alignment of outcomes, assessment methods, and instructional activities; Have a “toolkit” of active learning approaches to apply to courses.
May 22-23, 2006 Section I: Goals of the Title III Project Goal 1: increase the use of outcomes based assessment in courses and programs to measure and improve student learning; Goal 2: increase the use of active learning strategies and technologies to effect learner-centered instruction.
May 22-23, 2006 Learning Outcome(s) Teaching & Learning Activities Feedback & Assessment Student learning outcome: Students will critically analyze the current educational policies in the United States. Assessment method: exams with critical thinking items embedded Primary instructional method: lecture
May 22-23, 2006 Section III: What is active learning & why do it? Strategies that increase student engagement with material and are aligned with student learning outcomes Theory that derives from two basic assumptions: (1) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (2) that different people learn in different ways (Meyers and Jones, 1993).
May 22-23, 2006 What is active learning? [it is] when students are engaged in more activities than just listening. They are involved in dialog, debate, writing, and problem solving, as well as higher-order thinking. (Bonwell, C., and Eison, J., 1991)
May 22-23, 2006 Types of activities Small group work Presentations and debates Journaling Role playing Learning Games Field Experiences Case Studies Class Discussions Simulations….more! (Mc Keachie, 1994 and Silberman, 1996)
May 22-23, 2006 “simple tasks” ad hoc exercises; little or no advanced planning; e.g. “think-pair-share” “minute paper” “concept mapping ” “complex tasks” longer duration, carefully planned and structured Active learning types Collaborative learning carefully structured, group formation and student roles important Cooperative learning a form of collaborative learning that has 5 specific criteria to maximize learning
May 22-23, 2006 Cooperative learning: 5 key components 1.Positive interdependence (each individual depends on and is accountable to the others); 2.Individual accountability (each person in the group learns the material); 3. Promotive interaction (group members help one another, share information, clarify); 4.Social skills (emphasis on interpersonal skills); 5.Group processing (assessing how effectively they are working with one another).
May 22-23, 2006 Why do active learning? Sousa, D.A. (2000)
May 22-23, 2006 Why do Active Learning? www.foundationcoalition.org
May 22-23, 2006 Research summary Longitudinal studies show that cohorts of students instructed using active learning techniques outperformed a comparison group on multiple measures: retention, graduation and pursuit of graduate study (Felder, R., Felder, G, and Dietz, E, 1998)
May 22-23, 2006 Research summary “Scientists and engineers work mostly in groups and less often as isolated investigators. Similarly, students should gain experience sharing responsibility for learning with each other.” Meta-analysis of research studies: greater academic achievement, more favorable attitudes toward learning and, increased persistence in SMET courses and programs. www.wcer.wisc.edu/nise/cl1/CL/resource/R2.htm
May 22-23, 2006 Why do active learning? Retention levels are enhanced when active learning methods are used (McKeachie, 1999; Silberman, 1996) Active learning produces: higher achievement, more positive relationships among students, healthier psychological adjustment. (Johnson, D. W., R. T. Johnson, and K. Smith, 1991)
May 22-23, 2006 Section IV: Learning theorists & learning styles Behaviorism (B.F. Skinner) – learning built on conditioning Constructivism (J. Dewey, J. Piaget, L. Vygotsky, others) – learning built on prior knowledge
May 22-23, 2006 John Dewey (1916): 1) individual experience & 2) collaboration w/others are important for learning “School is primarily a social institution. Education is a social process….therefore [it] is a process of living, not preparation for living.”
May 22-23, 2006 Active learning from the Constructivist School Jean Piaget: we come to know the world by building new experiences on old experiences Lev Vygotsky: students learn better by engaging with “more capable others”
May 22-23, 2006 Constructivist principles Knowledge is constructed from experience; Learning results from personal interpretation of knowledge; Learning is an active process; Learning is a collaborative process.
May 22-23, 2006 Benjamin Bloom Viewed education as goal attainment, not competition; Acknowledged individual differences and environment as crucial; Studied high achieving adults - found they excelled because of MENTORSHIP.
May 22-23, 2006 Three Domains of Learning (Bloom,1956) Cognitive: mental skills Affective: growth regarding feelings, emotions Psychomotor: manual, physicality, environment
May 22-23, 2006 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning “Higher Order Thinking Skills” Synthesis Comprehension Application Analysis Knowledge Evaluation Alone or with a neighbor: 1) define each skill & 2) align in a hierarchy.
May 22-23, 2006 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Evaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas. Question Cues: assess, decide, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge Synthesis: use old ideas to create new ones. Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, substitute, plan, create, design, invent Analysis: identification of components. Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select Application: use of concepts/methods in new situations. Question cues: apply, demonstrate, illustrate, examine, solve Comprehension: understanding of meaning. Question cues: summarize, describe, interpret, predict Knowledge: recall of information. Question cues: define, identify, list, match
May 22-23, 2006 VAK learning styles Visual learners have two subchannels visual-linguistic visual-spatial Auditory learners Kinesthetic learners have two subchannels kinesthetic (movement) tactile (touch)
May 22-23, 2006 Section V: Active Learning & Technology
May 22-23, 2006 Bibliography Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green. Bonwell, C. and Eison, J. (1991). “Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom.”ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Bonwell C. and Sutherland, T. (eds.). (1996). Using Active Learning in College Classes: A Range of Options for Faculty. Jossey-Bass Publishers. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Collier Books. Felder, R.M., Felder, G.N., Dietz, E.J. (1998). “A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Student Performance and Retention V. Comparisons with Traditionally Taught Students.” Engineering Education, 98(4), 469-480. Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Huba, M. E. and Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Allyn and Bacon. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K. (1991). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom, Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice Hall.
May 22-23, 2006 Bibliography Mc Keachie, W. J. (1994). Teaching Tips: Strategies, research, and theory for College Teachers. 9th edition. Lexington, Maryland: D.C. Heath. Meyers, C. and Jones, T.B. (1993). Promoting active learning: Strategies for the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993. Paiget, J. (1970). The Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child. NY: Grossman. Silberman, M. (1996). Active learning: 101 Strategies to teach any subject. Allyn & Bacon. Sousa, D. A. (2000). How the brain learns: A classroom teacher's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Stice, J. E. (1987). “Using Kolb’s Learning Cycle to Improve Student Learning.” Engineering Education, 77(5), 291-296. Vygotsky, L.S. (1971). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.