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May 22-23, 2006 I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand. - Confucious.

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Presentation on theme: "May 22-23, 2006 I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand. - Confucious."— Presentation transcript:

1 May 22-23, 2006 I hear, and I forget; I see, and I remember; I do, and I understand. - Confucious

2 May 22-23, 2006 Active Learning: Motivating Students to Learn Dr. Theresa R. Moore

3 May 22-23, 2006 Outline of Plenary 1.Review goals of Title 3; 2.Course design; 3.What is active learning & why do it? 4.Learning theorists & learning styles; 5.Active learning and technology (Isaac).

4 May 22-23, 2006 Outcomes of the workshop Faculty will… Know basic concepts related to a cognitive approach to learning styles; Understand basic premises of active learning; Engage in active learning with their peers; Work individually and with their programs on purposeful alignment of outcomes, assessment methods, and instructional activities; Have a “toolkit” of active learning approaches to apply to courses.

5 May 22-23, 2006 Section I: Goals of the Title III Project Goal 1: increase the use of outcomes based assessment in courses and programs to measure and improve student learning; Goal 2: increase the use of active learning strategies and technologies to effect learner-centered instruction.

6 May 22-23, 2006 2. Learning goals 4. Teaching & Learning Activities 3. Feedback & Assessment Section II: Course design 1. Situational factors Active Learning

7 May 22-23, 2006 Learning Outcome(s) Teaching & Learning Activities Feedback & Assessment Student learning outcome: Students will critically analyze the current educational policies in the United States. Assessment method: exams with critical thinking items embedded Primary instructional method: lecture

8 May 22-23, 2006 Section III: What is active learning & why do it? Strategies that increase student engagement with material and are aligned with student learning outcomes Theory that derives from two basic assumptions: (1) that learning is by nature an active endeavor and (2) that different people learn in different ways (Meyers and Jones, 1993).

9 May 22-23, 2006 What is active learning? [it is] when students are engaged in more activities than just listening. They are involved in dialog, debate, writing, and problem solving, as well as higher-order thinking. (Bonwell, C., and Eison, J., 1991)

10 May 22-23, 2006 Types of activities Small group work Presentations and debates Journaling Role playing Learning Games Field Experiences Case Studies Class Discussions Simulations….more! (Mc Keachie, 1994 and Silberman, 1996)

11 May 22-23, 2006 “simple tasks” ad hoc exercises; little or no advanced planning; e.g. “think-pair-share” “minute paper” “concept mapping ” “complex tasks” longer duration, carefully planned and structured Active learning types Collaborative learning carefully structured, group formation and student roles important Cooperative learning a form of collaborative learning that has 5 specific criteria to maximize learning

12 May 22-23, 2006 Cooperative learning: 5 key components 1.Positive interdependence (each individual depends on and is accountable to the others); 2.Individual accountability (each person in the group learns the material); 3. Promotive interaction (group members help one another, share information, clarify); 4.Social skills (emphasis on interpersonal skills); 5.Group processing (assessing how effectively they are working with one another).

13 May 22-23, 2006 Why do active learning? Sousa, D.A. (2000)

14 May 22-23, 2006 Why do Active Learning?

15 May 22-23, 2006 Research summary Longitudinal studies show that cohorts of students instructed using active learning techniques outperformed a comparison group on multiple measures: retention, graduation and pursuit of graduate study (Felder, R., Felder, G, and Dietz, E, 1998)

16 May 22-23, 2006 Research summary “Scientists and engineers work mostly in groups and less often as isolated investigators. Similarly, students should gain experience sharing responsibility for learning with each other.” Meta-analysis of research studies: greater academic achievement, more favorable attitudes toward learning and, increased persistence in SMET courses and programs.

17 May 22-23, 2006 Why do active learning? Retention levels are enhanced when active learning methods are used (McKeachie, 1999; Silberman, 1996) Active learning produces:  higher achievement,  more positive relationships among students,  healthier psychological adjustment. (Johnson, D. W., R. T. Johnson, and K. Smith, 1991)

18 May 22-23, 2006 Section IV: Learning theorists & learning styles Behaviorism (B.F. Skinner) – learning built on conditioning Constructivism (J. Dewey, J. Piaget, L. Vygotsky, others) – learning built on prior knowledge

19 May 22-23, 2006 John Dewey (1916): 1) individual experience & 2) collaboration w/others are important for learning “School is primarily a social institution. Education is a social process….therefore [it] is a process of living, not preparation for living.”

20 May 22-23, 2006 Active learning from the Constructivist School Jean Piaget: we come to know the world by building new experiences on old experiences Lev Vygotsky: students learn better by engaging with “more capable others”

21 May 22-23, 2006 Constructivist principles Knowledge is constructed from experience; Learning results from personal interpretation of knowledge; Learning is an active process; Learning is a collaborative process.

22 May 22-23, 2006 Benjamin Bloom Viewed education as goal attainment, not competition; Acknowledged individual differences and environment as crucial; Studied high achieving adults - found they excelled because of MENTORSHIP.

23 May 22-23, 2006 Three Domains of Learning (Bloom,1956) Cognitive: mental skills Affective: growth regarding feelings, emotions Psychomotor: manual, physicality, environment

24 May 22-23, 2006 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning “Higher Order Thinking Skills” Synthesis Comprehension Application Analysis Knowledge Evaluation Alone or with a neighbor: 1) define each skill & 2) align in a hierarchy.

25 May 22-23, 2006 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Evaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas. Question Cues: assess, decide, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge Synthesis: use old ideas to create new ones. Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, substitute, plan, create, design, invent Analysis: identification of components. Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select Application: use of concepts/methods in new situations. Question cues: apply, demonstrate, illustrate, examine, solve Comprehension: understanding of meaning. Question cues: summarize, describe, interpret, predict Knowledge: recall of information. Question cues: define, identify, list, match

26 May 22-23, 2006 Learning styles Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic (VAK) Kolb’s learning style inventory (LSI) Meyers Briggs (MBTI)

27 May 22-23, 2006 VAK learning styles Visual learners have two subchannels visual-linguistic visual-spatial Auditory learners Kinesthetic learners have two subchannels kinesthetic (movement) tactile (touch)

28 May 22-23, 2006 Section V: Active Learning & Technology

29 May 22-23, 2006 Bibliography Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green. Bonwell, C. and Eison, J. (1991). “Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom.”ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Bonwell C. and Sutherland, T. (eds.). (1996). Using Active Learning in College Classes: A Range of Options for Faculty. Jossey-Bass Publishers. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education. New York: Collier Books. Felder, R.M., Felder, G.N., Dietz, E.J. (1998). “A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Student Performance and Retention V. Comparisons with Traditionally Taught Students.” Engineering Education, 98(4), 469-480. Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. Huba, M. E. and Freed, J. E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Allyn and Bacon. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K. (1991). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom, Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice Hall.

30 May 22-23, 2006 Bibliography Mc Keachie, W. J. (1994). Teaching Tips: Strategies, research, and theory for College Teachers. 9th edition. Lexington, Maryland: D.C. Heath. Meyers, C. and Jones, T.B. (1993). Promoting active learning: Strategies for the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993. Paiget, J. (1970). The Science of Education and the Psychology of the Child. NY: Grossman. Silberman, M. (1996). Active learning: 101 Strategies to teach any subject. Allyn & Bacon. Sousa, D. A. (2000). How the brain learns: A classroom teacher's guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Stice, J. E. (1987). “Using Kolb’s Learning Cycle to Improve Student Learning.” Engineering Education, 77(5), 291-296. Vygotsky, L.S. (1971). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes.. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds. & Trans.). Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.

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