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How Adults Really Learn Linda Larson Carr, PhD Academic Specialist Office of Learning & Teaching UA College of Medicine Phoenix Campus.

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Presentation on theme: "How Adults Really Learn Linda Larson Carr, PhD Academic Specialist Office of Learning & Teaching UA College of Medicine Phoenix Campus."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Adults Really Learn Linda Larson Carr, PhD Academic Specialist Office of Learning & Teaching UA College of Medicine Phoenix Campus

2 Next Clinical Teaching session is … Thursday, February 17 “Dealing with Non-Succeeding Learners: Lessons Learned”

3 Welcome! Please introduce yourself.Please introduce yourself. What aspect of learning do you find most intriguing? ORWhat aspect of learning do you find most intriguing? OR What question would you like answered?What question would you like answered?

4 Objectives Explain the principles of adult learning and the differences between pedagogy and andragogy.Explain the principles of adult learning and the differences between pedagogy and andragogy. Identify and explain four critical elements of learning that must be addressed to ensure that students learn effectively and efficiently.Identify and explain four critical elements of learning that must be addressed to ensure that students learn effectively and efficiently. Describe relevant educational models for adult learners.Describe relevant educational models for adult learners.

5 What is Learning? Average Retention Rates of Instructional Methods Pedagogy vs Andragogy Characteristics of Learners Challenges re. Learning?

6 What is learning? What is learning? “Learn to Play Tennis” Exercise

7 Lecture (5%) Reading (10%) Audiovisual (20%) Demonstration (30%) Discussion Group (50%) Practice By Doing (75%) Teach Others / Immediate Use of Learning (90%) Bethel, Maine: National Training Laboratories (1960s) Average Retention Rate after 24 hours

8 Pedagogy vs. Andragogy PEDAGOGY The art and science of teaching childrenThe art and science of teaching childrenANDRAGOGY The art and science of helping adults learnThe art and science of helping adults learn Term introduced in 1968 by KnowlesTerm introduced in 1968 by Knowles

9 Characteristics of Learners ADULT LEARNERS Problem-centeredProblem-centered Results-orientedResults-oriented Self-directedSelf-directed Often skeptical about new informationOften skeptical about new information Seek relevancySeek relevancy Accepts responsibility for own learningAccepts responsibility for own learning YOUTH LEARNERS Subject-orientedSubject-oriented Future-orientedFuture-oriented Often depend on adults for directionOften depend on adults for direction More acceptingMore accepting Often train for unclear futureOften train for unclear future Often dependent on othersOften dependent on others

10 What are the pressures to find new and efficient ways of learning?

11 Challenges of Clinical Teaching Challenges of Clinical Teaching Too little time availableToo little time available Conflicting time pressures on teachers and learnersConflicting time pressures on teachers and learners Lack of teacher observation of learner’s workLack of teacher observation of learner’s work Lack of teacher probing learner’s knowledge and reasoningLack of teacher probing learner’s knowledge and reasoning

12 “Academic medicine is in crisis across the world. Medicine's capacity to research, think, and teach is collapsing just at the time when science, social trends, and globalisation are offering great opportunities—and threats. BMJ 2003;327:1001-1002 (1 November), Editorial

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14 What do we need to know about adult learning?

15 Goals for Learning What is Learning? How to Enhance Learning How the Brain Works Implications for Teaching

16 Goals for Higher Education Goals for higher education now transcend transmitting knowledge to helping students develop cognitive structures, skills, strategies, and motivation for continued learning and problem solving. (McKeachie, et al., 1986) (McKeachie, et al., 1986)

17 How Do We Understand Learning Today? Humans actively create their knowledgeHumans actively create their knowledge Knowledge is not passively receivedKnowledge is not passively received Previous knowledge shapes new knowledgePrevious knowledge shapes new knowledge New knowledge shapes subsequent knowledgeNew knowledge shapes subsequent knowledge (Joint Task Force on Student Learning, 1998, Powerful Partnerships: A Shared Responsibility for Learning, http://www.aahe.org) http://www.aahe.org

18 Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves. - Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson “Seven Principles for Good Practice,” AAHE Bulletin 39:3-7, March 1987 Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing prepackaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves. - Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson “Seven Principles for Good Practice,” AAHE Bulletin 39:3-7, March 1987

19 Learning is enhanced when learners are asked to … State the information in their own wordsState the information in their own words Give examples of itGive examples of it Recognize it in various guises and circumstancesRecognize it in various guises and circumstances See connections between it and other facts or ideasSee connections between it and other facts or ideas Foresee some of its consequenceForesee some of its consequence State its opposite or converseState its opposite or converse

20 Metacognition Definition: thinking about thinking.Definition: thinking about thinking. Planning, monitoring, and evaluating thinking processes.Planning, monitoring, and evaluating thinking processes. Good learners engage in more metacognitive activities than poor learners.Good learners engage in more metacognitive activities than poor learners.

21 “…The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly.” (D. Ausubel, 1968)

22 Barriers to Learning Low self esteemLow self esteem Unwillingness to ask for helpUnwillingness to ask for help Lack of confidenceLack of confidence Low/uncertain motivationLow/uncertain motivation Inattentiveness or lack of attendance/participationInattentiveness or lack of attendance/participation Under-developed study skillsUnder-developed study skills Poor listening skillsPoor listening skills Anxiety or fear of insecurityAnxiety or fear of insecurity Inadequate knowledgeInadequate knowledge Low expectations of selfLow expectations of self Domestic, financial or personal worriesDomestic, financial or personal worries Physical, mental, or health conditionsPhysical, mental, or health conditions Specific learning difficultiesSpecific learning difficulties

23 Implications? Need to shift the focus from Teaching to LearningNeed to shift the focus from Teaching to Learning Need to use techniques that help students create meaningNeed to use techniques that help students create meaning Both faculty and students become LEARNERSBoth faculty and students become LEARNERS >

24 How the Brain Works

25 Teaching to the Brain Emotions are a key in learning.Emotions are a key in learning. An enriched learning environment is primary. We must expect more.An enriched learning environment is primary. We must expect more. Problem solving must be a way of classroom life.Problem solving must be a way of classroom life. The “big picture” is important.The “big picture” is important. Finally, work to eliminate threats. (“The Teaching Professor,” June/July 1999)Finally, work to eliminate threats. (“The Teaching Professor,” June/July 1999)

26 26 How to Enhance Learning? (Entwistle, 1992) STUDENT Characteristics DEEP APPROACH - Previous knowledge of topics - Perceived relevance of info - Intrinsic interest in subject - Study skills SURFACE APPROACH - Fear of failure - Anxiety - Reliance on memorization - Extrinsic motivation DEPARTMENT Influences - Matching content to previous knowledge - Good teaching - Opportunities for individual choice - Study skills training & support - Short- answer & MCQs - Heavy workload & overloaded curricula - Spoon-feeding through handouts - Lack of relevance or choice

27 Epidemiology of Mislearning (L Shulman) AmnesiaAmnesia FantasiaFantasia InertiaInertia

28 Adult Learning Theory (Knowles) Support in learning plans Identify/devise strategies for using resources Establish an effective learning climate Mutual planning of methods/ content Diagnose own needs Formulate own learning objectives Evaluate own learning

29 A closer look … applying educational theory in practice

30 Self efficacy Construc- tivism Reflective practice Self directed learning

31 Self directed learning Organizing teaching and learning so that learning is within the learners’ controlOrganizing teaching and learning so that learning is within the learners’ control A goal towards which learners strive so that they become able to accept responsibility for their own learningA goal towards which learners strive so that they become able to accept responsibility for their own learning

32 Self efficacy Bandura posits that people’s judgments of their own ability to deal with different situations is central to their actionsBandura posits that people’s judgments of their own ability to deal with different situations is central to their actions These judgments may or may not be accurateThese judgments may or may not be accurate 4 sources: performance attainments, observations of others, verbal persuasion, and physiological state4 sources: performance attainments, observations of others, verbal persuasion, and physiological state

33 Self efficacy – roles for the teacher Modeling or demonstrationModeling or demonstration Setting a clear goal or image of the desired outcomeSetting a clear goal or image of the desired outcome Providing basic knowledge and skills needed as the foundation for the taskProviding basic knowledge and skills needed as the foundation for the task Providing guided practice with corrective feedbackProviding guided practice with corrective feedback Giving students the opportunity to reflect on their learningGiving students the opportunity to reflect on their learning

34 Constructivism The primary idea of constructivism is that learners “construct” their own knowledge on the basis of what they already know. This theory posits that learning is active, rather than passive, with learners making judgments about when and how to modify their knowledge. The primary idea of constructivism is that learners “construct” their own knowledge on the basis of what they already know. This theory posits that learning is active, rather than passive, with learners making judgments about when and how to modify their knowledge.

35 Teacher’s role is a FACILITATOR Learning based on prior knowledge Active learning Is key

36 Reflective practice Schon’s work based on a study of many professionsSchon’s work based on a study of many professions Formal theory often not useful to solve real life problemsFormal theory often not useful to solve real life problems Professionals automatic ways of practicing (“zones of mastery”)Professionals automatic ways of practicing (“zones of mastery”)

37 Knowing in action Reflection in action Information seeking Solve problem Zone of Expertise Surprise Patient encounter Schőn’s Model of Reflective Practice

38 Knowing in action Reflection in action Information seeking Solve problem Zone of Expertise Surprise Client encounter Reflection after the event Information seeking Enhancement of practice

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40 Do I feel good about my management of this case? If so, why: Do I feel uncomfortable about my management of this case? If so, why: Do I need new information, skill or attitude to manage this case better? If so, what specifically do I need? Did I learn anything new while managing this case? If so, what specifically did I learn? A Tool for Reflecting on Practice

41 My Learning Diary: Record what’s new to you and check off progress with learning in the right-hand column NOTES 1.“ What is the new message here and how does it fit with my existing knowledge or experience? 2.What questions do I have? “What if” questions help me to “ make sense” of the new concept 3.Do I need more information to answer my questions 4.I need to validate my understanding of this new concept 5.I need to visualize how I can use this information in other areas of my study or practice”

42 The Context of Clinical Education ▼Rounds - Journal clubs - Tumor Boards ▼Team learning ▼Practice reflection ▼Mentors ▼Asynchronous Communication ▼Information sources ▼National links with peers ▼Outcome data - Patient surveys - Utilization studies - Practice reflection - Corporate memory

43 Paradigms in Learning (Penchion D. 1999. Editorial BMJ. May 8) OLD Paradigm Finite amount of knowledge to be absorbedFinite amount of knowledge to be absorbed Experts are recognized by knowing what they should knowExperts are recognized by knowing what they should know Learning starts by contacting an authorityLearning starts by contacting an authority Uncertainty is discouraged and ignorance avoidedUncertainty is discouraged and ignorance avoided Experts have knowledge—they’re on TOPExperts have knowledge—they’re on TOP NEW Paradigm It is not possible to absorb all knowledge on a subjectIt is not possible to absorb all knowledge on a subject Experts are recognized by knowing what they don’t know and knowing how to manage itExperts are recognized by knowing what they don’t know and knowing how to manage it Learning starts in practice (Balance E-B, tacit knowledge and learning from mistakes)Learning starts in practice (Balance E-B, tacit knowledge and learning from mistakes) Legitimizing uncertainty and learning by questioningLegitimizing uncertainty and learning by questioning Experts find solutions—they are on TAPExperts find solutions—they are on TAP

44 Small Group Activity Case 1: Orientation to a clerkship Case 2: Patient safety training Case 3: Transitional year training Apply principles of adult learning

45 Where do we go from here? What does changing the paradigm from teaching to learning imply about my role as a teacher? My learners’ roles? What does changing the paradigm from teaching to learning imply about my role as a teacher? My learners’ roles?

46 Tonight’s Gallery of Learning New knowledge or ways of knowing …New knowledge or ways of knowing … New or renewed interest in …New or renewed interest in … Continued questions about …Continued questions about … The muddiest point:The muddiest point: What will I keep the same?What will I keep the same? What will I do more of ?What will I do more of ? What will I do less of?What will I do less of? What I will stop doing?What I will stop doing? What I will do differently and how will I do it?What I will do differently and how will I do it? What I will add is …What I will add is …

47 In conclusion … We may not fully understand how adults learn, but what we do know is that the capacity and potential of individuals is breathtaking! Educators have the privilege to develop that capacity and help learners reach their potential by applying adult learning theories, such as self directed learning, self efficacy, constructivism, and reflective practice. We may not fully understand how adults learn, but what we do know is that the capacity and potential of individuals is breathtaking! Educators have the privilege to develop that capacity and help learners reach their potential by applying adult learning theories, such as self directed learning, self efficacy, constructivism, and reflective practice.

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49 Please complete Participant Feedback Form. Participant Feedback Form. Thank you!

50 Tell me and I’ll forget; Show me and I may remember; Involve me and I’ll understand. Chinese Proverb


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