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Learning to Learn: Why Not Be Explicit In The Classroom? Karl Wirth.

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1 Learning to Learn: Why Not Be Explicit In The Classroom? Karl Wirth

2 Changing Landscape of Teaching & Learning Research on the Brain Research on Learning New Students & Learning Styles Technology Globalization

3 Research on Learning Active & Learner-Centered Teamwork & Collaborative Roles of Transfer & Metacognition Importance of Community & Civic Engagement Multi-dimensional How People Learn (NRC, 2000) Significant Learning (Fink, 2003)

4 Faculty are mostly Boomers and Gen Xers Millennial Preference for Sensing Styles Active Learning Teamwork Civic Engagement Use of Technology New Students & Learning Styles SilentBoomerGen XMillennialGI 1924194219601982

5 Technology & Globalization Age of Communication & Multimedia New Definition of “Educated” Adaptability & Lifelong Learning Friedman (2005) Tapscott (1998)

6 Critical Competencies 1.Personal responsibility, 2.Ability to act in principled, ethical fashion, 3.Skill in oral and written communication, 4.Interpersonal and team skills, 5.Skills in critical thinking and problem-solving, 6.Respect for people different from oneself, 7.Ability to change, 8.Ability and desire for lifelong learning. (from Gardiner, 1994)

7 Educating “Intentional Learners” “to help college students become Intentional Learners who can adapt to new environments, integrate knowledge from different sources, and continue learning throughout their lives.” Intentional Learners Are: Empowered Informed Responsible Greater Expectations (2002 AACU Report)

8 Intentional Learners Greater Expectations (2002 AACU Report) Becoming an intentional learner means: developing self-awareness about the reason for study, the learning process itself, and how education is used Intentional learners are integrative thinkers who see connections in seemingly disparate information to inform their decisions.

9 Self-Directed Learners Greater Expectations (2002 AACU Report) Self-directed learners are highly motivated, independent, and strive toward self- direction and autonomy. They take the initiative to diagnose their learning needs, formulate learning goals, identify resources for learning, select an implement learning strategies, and evaluate learning outcomes.

10 2006 Panel Report Commission on Further of Higher Education “we are disturbed by evidence that the quality of student learning at U.S. colleges and universities is inadequate and, in some cases, declining” “employers report repeatedly that many new graduates they hire are not prepared to work, lacking the critical thinking, writing and problem- solving skills needed in today’s workplaces” “business and government leaders have repeatedly and urgently called for workers at all stages of life to continually upgrade their academic and practical skills”

11 How will you get there… …if you don’t know where you are going ? Learning to Learn

12 Learning Co-Curriculum Outgrowth of Faculty Teaching Seminar Search for “Overview of Learning” For Students Preparation of Learning Document Students & Faculty

13 The “Language” of Learning Definition of Learning Levels of Understanding Significant Learning Critical Thinking Research on The Brain Learning Styles Metacognition Affective Domain Intellectual Development Behavioral Dimensions of Grades

14 An OED Definition of Learning To acquire knowledge of a subject or a skill through education or experience, To gain information about somebody or something, or To memorize something, for example facts, a poem, or music. Shift from “recall” to “use” Simon (1996)

15 Beyond Memorization Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956) Levels of Understanding

16 Revised Taxonomy Revised by Anderson & Krathwohl (2001)

17 Significant Learning Learning that will be “significant to the learner” Foundational Knowledge Application Integration Human Dimension Caring Learning How to Learn Relational & Interactive Fink (2003)

18 Significant Learning

19 Critical Thinking “… is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action” National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking

20 Elements of Reasoning Purpose & Motivation Question or Problem Assumptions Point of View Data, Information, Evidence Concepts & Ideas Inferences & Conclusions Implications & Consequences

21 The Brain as a Dynamic Organ Learning Changes Physical Structure of the Brain Synapse Addition, Experience, and Environment Structural Changes Alter Functional Organization Learning Literally Involves “Re-Wiring the Brain” “Novices” and “Experts” How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience and School NRC (2000)

22 Learning Styles Focus on different types of information Operate on that information differently Achieve understanding at different rates No learning style is “better” Instructors tend to teach to their learning style

23 Learning Styles Kolb Learning Style Inventory Sensing, Watching, Thinking, Doing Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Four Dichotomous Dimensions: Extroversion versus Introversion, Sensing versus Intuition, Thinking versus Feeling, Judging versus Perspective VARK (Visual, Aural, Reading, Kinesthetic) Preferences for input and output of information Strategies for enhancing learning

24 Metacognition How We Think Strategies for Learning How One’s Thinking is Changing Assessing One’s Own Understanding Progress on Learning Goals

25 Journaling on Metacognition Describe the learning strategies that you are currently using in this course? How successful are they? How might they be modified for more effective learning? Describe the methods you are using to monitor your understanding? How well are these working?

26 Affective Domain Attitudes Motivation Willingness to Participate Valuing What is Being Learned Incorporating Values Into Life

27 Journaling - Affective Domain How have your attitudes about the significance and relevance of the course materials changed? Describe how the content and skills you have learned in this course might be relevant to other courses you are currently taking. How about in your future education? In your career?

28 Intellectual Development Perry’s (1968) Study of Harvard Students Nine Positions of Intellectual Development; Four Sub- Categories Stage I - Dualism (Positions 1 & 2) Either-Or thinking; Authorities have all the answers Stage II - Multiplicity (Positions 3 & 4) Recognition of uncertainty; Everyone’s opinions equally legitimate Stage III - Relativism (Positions 5 & 6) Critical thinking; Knowledge is contextual and relativistic Stage IV - Commitment to Knowing (Positions 7, 8 & 9) Developing commitment and sense of being; Knowledge is the resolution between uncertainty and the need to act

29 Behavioral Dimensions of Grades Commitment Preparation Curiosity Attitude Talent Retention Effort Communication Skills Performance from Williams (1993)

30 The Learning Co-Curriculum Reading at Beginning of Semester In-Class Discussion & Activities Learning Styles Surveys Reflective Journaling Frequent Reference Throughout Semester

31 “Learning to Learn” Document Available from: Send Your “Top 10” Ideas to:

32 Opportunities for New Conversations About Learning...

33 Bloom's Levels of Understanding LevelDefinition Verb Examples That Can Represent Intellectual Activity Evaluation Appraise, assess, or critique on basis of standards or criteria appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose, defend, estimate, judge, predict, rate, select, evaluate Synthesis Originate, integrate, or combine ideas into a new product or plan arrange, assemble, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, organize, propose Analysis Distinguish, classify, or relate assumption, hypotheses or evidence analyze, appraise, categorize, compare, distinguish, examine Application Select, transfer, and use data or principles to complete new task apply, choose, demonstrate, employ, illustrate, interpret, solve, use Comprehension Translate, comprehend, or interpret information classify, describe, discuss, explain, indicate, restate, translate Knowledge Recall or recognition of information, ideas and principles arrange, define, label, list, name, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce

34 Importance of Neural Networks The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else, due to lack of facilities, that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do a few things at once than too many. (from Bruer, 1993)

35 Importance of Neural Networks “Washing Clothes” The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else, due to lack of facilities, that is the next step, otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do a few things at once than too many. (from Bruer, 1993)

36 Teaching, Learning & Communication 1.Form Groups 2.Select and assemble “teachers” 3.Lesson plan 4.Two-minute lecture; no illustrations Students take notes, no questions (from Duch et al. 2001)

37 Stand and Deliver Exercise

38 Teaching, Learning & Communication 1.Teacher conference Students draw figure; no discussion 2.Groups work to refine representation 3.Teachers return; distribute original 4.Discussion & Reflection Did everyone draw the same picture? Did discussion improve representation? How would learning be improved? Challenge of “teaching” mental images Importance of communication & feedback



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