Presentation on theme: "Evaluating the Effects of Lead Mitigation Policy on Childhood Lead Exposure in Rhode Island Alyssa Sylvaria & Ryan Kelly The Providence Plan - Information."— Presentation transcript:
Evaluating the Effects of Lead Mitigation Policy on Childhood Lead Exposure in Rhode Island Alyssa Sylvaria & Ryan Kelly The Providence Plan - Information Group
Outline 1.Background 2.Data and Methods 3.Compliance 4.Childhood Lead Exposure – Compliance – Exemption – Foreclosure 5.Implications 2
Childhood Lead Exposure 5 µg/dL 5 µg/dL CDC reference level for elevated blood lead levels (EBLL) as of 2012 Rhode Island 25% 2002 Incidence 25% 5% 2012 Incidence 5% 4 Sources: ACCLPP. (2012). Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children: A Renewed Call for Primary Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program. (2014). Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island Department of Health. http://www.health.ri.gov/data/childhoodleadpoisoning/
Federal Primary Prevention Efforts Title X: Lead Disclosure Rule HUD Lead Safe Housing Rule EPA Renovation, Repair, and Painting OSHA Interim Lead in Construction Standard 5 Sources: HUD Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Lead-Based Paint Hazards in Housing. (2012). http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/healthy_homes/lbp/hudguidelines
RI Primary Prevention Efforts As of 2005, most rental property owners need to obtain a compliance certificate Exemptions: – 1978 or later Built after lead was banned in paint – Owner-occupied properties with <4 units – ≤100 days a year Temporary or seasonal units – Age 62+ Designated elderly housing 6
RI’s Lead Law 7 Certificates of Conformance require that property owners 1.Attend a Lead Hazard Awareness Class 2.Visually assess the property 3.Get an Independent Clearance Inspection 4.Fix lead hazards 5.Use lead-safe work practices in any maintenance projects 6.Give tenants an Inspection Report and lead hazard info 7.Respond to tenants' concerns about any lead hazards
Population of Properties Residential properties Residential properties – 1 to 5 family properties – Apartments (6+ units) – Mixed use (commercial + residential) Core cities in Rhode Island Core cities in Rhode Island – Central Falls – Pawtucket – Providence – Woonsocket Built before 1978 Built before 1978 – For both exempt and non-exempt 9
Data 10 Property-Level Data Property-Level Data Compliance certificates Tax Assessor Data – Current as of… Providence, 2009 Woonsocket, 2009 Pawtucket, 2010 Central Falls, 2011 Master Look-Up Tables – Verifies the property associated with each address Child-Level Data Child-Level Data Blood Lead Levels (BLLs) – Confirmed blood lead test results – Children living at addresses in the core cities – Ages 0-72 months
Linking Method 11 2. Standardize Address Data to Properties and Match 1. Aggregate Lead Test Results to Properties Lead- exposed children Lead Compliance Property descriptives
Focus : Rates of compliance with the Lead Hazard Mitigation Act Population : 15,678 non-exempt properties – Did or did not have any children with blood lead tests (all non-exempt residential properties in our linked dataset) – 2005-2012 Compliance 13
14 Properties with “Any Compliance” Had a Certificate of Conformance or Lead Safe Lead Free Certificate – At least one unit on the property (if multi-family) – Complied at any point between 2005 and 2012
15 Any Compliance & Lead Exposure Any compliance includes properties that did not comply until after a child had an elevated blood lead level (EBLL) from 2005-2012 Not Compliant Until After EBLL Compliance Before EBLL or No EBLL NO COMPLIANCE Compliance & Lead Exposure at Property ANY COMPLIANCE
16 Compliance Results 30.4% of properties had ANY compliance
21 Lead Exposure & Compliance Population 9,127 non-exempt properties with at least one child tested for lead (2005- 2012) Question Did compliant properties have lower rates of lead exposure than non- compliant properties?
25 Lead Exposure & Compliance Summary Properties with any compliance had higher rates of lead-exposed children than non-compliant properties. Most of the compliant properties with lead-exposed children in 2005-2012 were multi-families and had lead- exposed children before 2005.
26 Lead Exposure & Exemption Population 20,974 properties with at least one child tested for lead (2005-2012) Question Do exempt properties still have lead-exposed children?
27 Lead Exposure & Exemption 56.5% of properties are exempt from the law
30 Lead Exposure & Exemption Summary Over half of the properties with children tested for lead are not subject to the law. Non-exempt properties had higher rates of EBLLs on the property, but the non- exempt and exempt categories had similar numbers of properties with EBLLs 4,291 non-exempt compared to 3,990 exempt
31 Lead Exposure & Foreclosure Population 39,903 children with blood lead test results Question Do foreclosed properties increase the likelihood of lead-exposed children? Context Housing market issues and home maintenance
32 5% of children lived in a property that foreclosed within 18 months of their lead test date (Adjusted for residence type, owner-occupancy, city of residence, year property built (pre-1950 vs. 1950-1977), and child’s age at time of test). Lead Exposure & Foreclosure Key Results Foreclosure within 18 months of test No:Yes:Difference Estimated BLL (p-value) All children3.173.37-0.20(-0.1715) Children in owner-occupied properties 3.373.330.05(-0.8586) Children in non-owner- occupied properties 3.714.36-0.64(-0.0468)
33 Lead Exposure & Foreclosure Summary Children living in foreclosed rented properties had significantly higher estimated BLLs once we controlled for other variables. Relationship was not significant for owner- occupied properties. Foreclosure is likely one important factor out of many that can contribute to lead exposure.
Data Limitations Analysis is not unit-based Compliance does not account for expired certificates 34
Takeaways Enforcement is key to primary prevention Owner-occupied properties not less likely to have lead-exposed children Housing market issues can complicate efforts to reduce environmental health conditions 35
Implications & Next Steps Emphasize connection with healthy housing – Asthma – Energy usage – Inspections Local outreach around compliance and implications for child health 36
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