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The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker Director, National Center for Border Security and Immigration (BORDERS) Regents and Soldwedel Professor of.

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Presentation on theme: "The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker Director, National Center for Border Security and Immigration (BORDERS) Regents and Soldwedel Professor of."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker Director, National Center for Border Security and Immigration (BORDERS) Regents and Soldwedel Professor of MIS, Computer Science, and Communication If you build it, they will use it … IF you are willing to go…

2 LDVTHERMALBLINK PUPILLOMETRYEYE-TRACKING Tools for Rapid Screening 2 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

3 Tools for Rapid Screening 3 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

4 Lessons Learned To be successful, go “the last research mile” It’s all about the quality of the data – Avoid data that is: Incomplete Inconsistent Inaccurate Inconceivable 4 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker – Handle data that is: Complete Consistent Accurate Realistic/Relevant

5 Topics Why bother going the Last Research Mile? Ideas are a dime-a-dozen The value of going the last research mile The last research mile in three stages Payoffs for going the last mile 5 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

6 The Last Research Mile Using your academic insights to solve real problems for real people 6 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

7 A Common (Faulty) Approach I’ve come up with a really interesting idea I’ve written my idea down I’m done… … because implementation is just details … and that’s easy! This approach rarely finds the “gold” 7 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

8 Facts of Life You will not guess correctly from your office chair The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker 8 You will only see it in the lab and in the field

9 Facts of Life The “gold” is in the details – Your “interesting idea” is naive until someone takes it through the last mile – Your understanding is rudimentary until you go through the last mile – The work you’ve done is trivial until it has been worked through the last mile 9 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

10 Facts of Life Ideas are a dime-a-dozen – No points for thinking of it – Study it in depth and make it happen – People can “steal” ideas, but they can’t steal your insights from going the last research mile – The Conference Barnacle “I thought of your idea 20 years ago.” – Too bad he/she didn’t make it happen. 10 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

11 Why Go the Last Mile? Until your system is in the hands of users without a vested interest, you won’t get to the “gold” – Academics are paid to find the gems and nuggets – Gems and nuggets are in the details – The details are in the field 11 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

12 Solving a Real Problem Find a painful problem Propose a new solution Listen carefully to the reactions Devise an approach to ease their pain Design and build a prototype Test in the lab Test in the field 12 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

13 A Multimethodological Approach to IS Research 13 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

14 “Last Mile” Research Road Map Proof-of-Concept prototype (POC) Proof-of-Value (POV) Proof of self-sustaining Use (POU) 14 Real Problem POC POV POU The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

15 “Last Mile” Research Road Hazard The temptation is to only complete the POC – GO THE LAST MILE! 15 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker Real Problem POC POV POU

16 WHAT IF THE 1969 MOON-DESTINED ASTRONAUTS HAD STOPPED ONE MILE BEFORE LANDING? 16 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

17 17 Photographs of the footprints were actually part of a planned experiment by Aldrin to study the nature of the lunar dust and the effects of pressure on the surface.

18 Neil Armstrong Explained “Experts had, prior to the flight, predicted… difficulty might be encountered attempting to work on the surface of the Moon due to the variety of strange atmospheric and gravitational characteristics that would be encountered. This didn't prove to be the case. After landing we felt very comfortable in the lunar gravity. It was, in fact, preferable both to weightlessness and to the Earth's gravity.” The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker 18 Neil Armstong, 1969, NASA website,

19 STEP ONE: PROOF OF CONCEPT 19 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

20 Proof-of-Concept Prototype Find out if the proposed solution works Discover any limitations of the system 20 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

21 Such Was the Case in the Shipyard 21 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

22 Formatted Problem Statement 22

23 POC Example: Group Support System 1984 – Early Collaborative Electronic Brainstorming Tool Built System in VAX Job Control Language Demonstrated the Concept Not Scalable or Full-Featured 23 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

24 24 GENERATE IDEAS ORGANIZE IDEAS POLL CONSENSUS EXPLORE IDEAS PLAN SESSION ACCUMULATE AND REPRESENT KNOWLEDGE Organizational Memory Enterprise Model Corporate Database WWWFTP SHARE INFORMATION SHARED INFORMATION ACCESS

25 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker 25

26 Academic Payoff from Proof-of-Concept Prototype Discover interesting phenomena that you can’t explain – People couldn’t understand distributed teamwork – Need for additional tools – Need for mapping interfaces to user perspective – People were fantastically productive 26 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

27 Academic Payoff from Proof-of-Concept Prototype Stumble onto Nuggets – Value of anonymity – Value of participation 27 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

28 Academic Payoff from Proof-of-Concept Prototype Gained insights Gained credibility – The roughest demo is better than the best lecture Gained resources from NSF, NCR, IBM, ATT, ARL to move on to the “Proof of Value” Verify that it works 28 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

29 STEP TWO: PROOF OF VALUE 29 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

30 Proof-of-Value Sufficient robustness and functionality to solve ONE important, painful problem Take it into the field and shepherd the users – MEASURE whether they are more productive with the system than without Write down every compliment, and complaint verbatim – Add dates, names, and contact info (if possible) 30

31 Proof-of-Value Sufficient robustness and functionality to solve a painful problem for the users Experiment in the lab Take it into the field – MEASURE whether they are more productive with the system than without 31 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

32 POV Example: GroupSystems for Windows Passed POC Technically feasible Passed POV Used by 2,500 organizations Failed POU Need for: Facilitator Dedicated rooms Lack of: Repeatable processes The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker 32

33 The Light Airborne Multi Purpose System (LAMPS) Aircraft The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker 33

34 Academic Payoff from Proof-of-Value Explain the productivity phenomena – Process gains and losses – Process support, process structure, task support, task structure – Explicitness for distributed teamwork 34 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

35 Academic Payoff from Proof-of-Value Initial theoretical foundations – The IPO Model of Group Support Systems Team/Task/Technology/Context – Theory of eTeam support High-profile publications 35 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

36 Findings About Anonymity EVALUATIVE TONE Positive OnlyPositive AND Negative ATTRIBUTION Anonymous Identified References: Connolly, Jessup, & Valacich (1990); Nunamaker, Dennis, Valacich, & Vogel (1991) 36 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

37 Findings About Anonymity EVALUATIVE TONE Positive OnlyPositive AND Negative ATTRIBUTION Anonymous Most Productive Least Satisfied Identified Least Productive Most Satisfied References: Connolly, Jessup, & Valacich (1990); Nunamaker, Dennis, Valacich, & Vogel (1991) 37 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

38 Findings About Anonymity and Proximity GROUP CONDITIONS DistributedCo-Located ATTRIBUTION Anonymous Identified 38 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

39 Findings About Anonymity and Proximity GROUP CONDITIONS DistributedCo-Located ATTRIBUTION Anonymous Loss of Focus Desire for Anonymity Desire for Identification Identified Loss of FocusHigher Satisfaction 39 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

40 What We Learned from Lab Studies Value of anonymity Amount of participation Measures of satisfaction Electronically, group size is different – Homogenous vs. diverse groups Negative comments are POSITIVE results Expectations – Affect (Raise the Bar) 40 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

41 What We Learned from Field Studies 90% cycle time reduction 50% fewer man-hours required Proximity insights Process structure is important User interfaces make a difference Complicated processes need facilitation Key to Success: Identify repeatable processes and sequences 41 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

42 42 Process Gains Synergy Learning Stimulation More Information More Precise Communication More Objective Evaluation Effects Depend Upon Specific Technique Used Process Support Group Memory Anonymity Parallel Communication Media Effects Media Speed Depersonalization Media Richness View Size Process Losses Attention Blocking Failure to Remember Conformance Pressure Evaluation Apprehension Free Riding Air Time Fragmentation Attenuation Blocking Concentration Blocking Socializing Domination Information Overload Flaming Slower Feedback Fewer Information Cues Incomplete Use of Info. Incomplete Task Analysis Coordination Problems Effects Depend Upon Specific Technique Used EMS Task Support Task Structure Process Structure Global Local Increases: Decreases:

43 STEP THREE: PROOF OF USE 43 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

44 Academic Payoff from Proof-of-Use Deep understanding of technical, operational, and economic aspects of the problem domain Your nuggets will unify into a sophisticated understanding of the domain You can now create value intentionally You can now find nuggets intentionally Provide improved products to users in the field, and leave them behind 44 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

45 POU Example: CommandNet Military intelligence analysis system aboard the USS CORONADO People from POU deployment rotated out to carriers, and demanded the capability Researchers installed CommandNet on carriers and left it behind Military users provide data and testimonials 45 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

46 Sea-based Battle Lab: USS Coronado 46 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

47 JTF Complex – USS Coronado Operations Center CMOC Admirals’ Club Situation Room

48 48 Civil-Military Operations Center MILITARY INTERNATIONAL RESCUE COMMITTEE OTHER RELIEF & BENEFIT ORGANIZATIONS INTERACTION CARE DOCTORS WITHOUT BORDERS SAVE THE CHILDREN WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME DEPT OF PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES UNICEF OFDA / DART COUNTRY TEAM CMOC UN NGOs & PVOs NGOs & PVOs U.S.GOV AGENCIES U.S.GOV AGENCIES ICRC AMERICAN RED CROSS JP 3-57, IV-18 IFRC Courtesy of LT Randy Myrick USCINCPAC

49 49 Joint Planning CenterJoint Operations Center (JOC) Saran wrap needed due to dust

50 Proof-of-Use A Solution For Virtual Teams A task-specific collaborative application A sequence of steps Present… – Just the right tools – Configured in just the right way – To just the right people – With just the right guidance …To accomplish the step at hand 50 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

51 Payoffs from Going the Last Mile Understanding what is really going on Unraveling of the complexities Satisfaction of having made a difference It’s where the value to society is created It’s where you make a lasting difference 51 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

52 “They Might Steal My Ideas” People can use your concepts, but if you have – The nuggets… – The resources… – The credibility, and… – The technology… YOU will win! The last research mile is uphill, so they won’t follow 52 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

53 Rewards for Going the Last Mile The last mile is where the value to society is created The last mile is where you make a lasting difference 53 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker

54 The Document Camera Example Our Innovation The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker 54 The Commercial Product

55 The need for document camera The value of screen-sharing Teams are productive The value of anonymity for electronic brainstorming Model for process gains and losses Exponential increase in explicitness for distributed teams Experiments: satisfaction, participation, proximity, affect, social loafing The technology transition model Thinklets Principles for distributed use (global teams) The Cognito Studio (authoring language for processes) 2006 – GroupSystems’ Think Tank Nuggets from “Last Mile” Research POC POV POU

56 “Last Mile” Research Road Map Proof-of-Concept prototype(POC) Proof-of-Value (POV) Proof of self-sustaining Use(POU) Go the last mile to get the gold! 56 The Last Research Mile Dr. Jay F. Nunamaker


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