10-2 Data Management: A Critical Success Factor The difficulties and the process Data sources and collection Data quality Multimedia and object-oriented databases Document management
10-3 The Difficulties and the Process: The Difficulties Data amount increases exponentially Data: multiple sources Small portion of data useful for specific decisions Increased need for external data
10-4 The Difficulties and the Process: The Difficulties Differing legal requirements among countries Selection of data management tool - large number Data security, quality, and integrity
10-5 The Difficulties and the Process: Data Life Cycle Process and Knowledge Discovery Data Collection Stored in databases Processed Stored in data warehouse Transformation - ready for analysis Data mining tools - knowledge Presentation
10-6 Data Sources and Collection Internal data Personal data External data Internet and commercial database services Methods for collecting raw data
10-7 Data Quality (DQ) Intrinsic DQ: – Accuracy, objectivity, believability, and reputation Accessibility DQ: – Accessibility and access security
10-8 Data Quality (DQ) Contextual DQ: – Relevancy, value added, timeliness, completeness Representation DQ: – Interpretability, ease of understanding, concise representation, and consistent representation
10-11 Data Warehousing, Mining, and Analysis Transaction versus analytical processing Data warehouse and data marts Knowledge discovery, analysis, and mining
10-12 Transaction Versus Analytical Processing Good Data Delivery System Easy data access by end users Quicker decision making Accurate and effective decision making Flexible decision making
10-13 Transaction Versus Analytical Processing Solution Business representation of data for end users Client-server environment - end users query and reporting capability Server-based repository (data warehouse)
10-14 The Data Warehouse and Marts The purpose of a data warehouse is to establish a data repository that makes operational data accessible in a form readily acceptable for analytical processing activities... A data mart is … dedicated to a functional or regional area.
10-15 Characteristics of Data Warehousing Organization Consistency Time variant Nonvolatile Relational
10-16 The Data Warehouse and Marts Benefits Cost Architecture Putting the data warehouse on the internet Suitability
10-17 Knowledge Discovery, Analysis, and Mining Foundations of knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) Tools and techniques of KDD Online analytical processing (OLAP) Data mining
10-18 The Foundations of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) Massive data collection Powerful multiprocessor computers Data mining algorithms
10-20 OLAP Queries Access very large amounts of data Analyze the relationships between many types of business elements Involve aggregated data Compare aggregated data over hierarchical time periods
10-21 OLAP Queries Present data in different perspectives Involve complex calculations between data elements Able to respond quickly to user requests
10-22 Data Mining Automated prediction of trends Automated discovery of previously unknown patterns
10-23 Data Mining Characteristics and Objectives Data often buried deep within large databases Data may be consolidated in data warehouse or kept in internet and intranet servers Usually client-server architecture
10-24 Data Mining Characteristics and Objectives Data mining tools extract information buried in corporate files or archived public records The “miner” is often an end user “Striking it rich” usually involves finding unexpected, valuable results Parallel processing
10-25 Data Mining Characteristics and Objectives Data mining yields five types of information Data miners can use one or several tools
10-26 Data Mining Yields Five Types of Information Association Sequences Classifications Clusters Forecasting
10-28 Data Visualization Technologies Data visualization Multidimensionality Geographical information systems (GIS)
10-29 Data Visualization Data visualization refers to presentation of data by technologies digital images, geographical information systems, graphical user interfaces, multidimensional tables and graphs, virtual reality, three-dimensional presentations and animation.
10-30 Multidimensionality Major advantage - data can be organized the way managers prefer to see the data There factors: dimensions, measures, and time
10-31 Examples Dimensions –Products, salespeople, market segments, business units, geographical locations Measures –Money, sales volume, head count, inventory, profit, actual versus forecasted Time –Daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly
10-32 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) A GIS is a computer-based system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating, manipulating, and displaying data using digitized maps.
10-33 Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Software Data Emerging GIS applications
10-34 Emerging GIS Applications Integration of GIS and GPS –Reengineer aviation and shipping industries Intelligent GIS (integration of GIS and ES) User interface –Multimedia, 3D graphics, animated and interactive maps Web applications
10-35 Marketing Databases in Action The Marketing Transaction Database (MTD) Implementation Examples
10-36 The Marketing Transaction Database (MTD) … a new kind of database, oriented toward targeting and personalizing marketing messages in real time.
10-38 Knowledge Management Knowledge management or managing knowledge databases A knowledge base is a database that contains infromation or organizational know how.
10-39 Knowledge Management Knowledge bases and organizational learning Implementing knowledge management systems
10-40 Arthur Andersen’s Learning Organization Knowledge Base Global best practices hotline These data combined with ongoing research identify areas to be developed Research analysis team with content experts to develop best practices Qualitative and quantitative information and tools are released on CD-ROM for corporate wide access
10-41 Arthur Andersen’s Knowledge Base Best company profiles Relevant Arthur Andersen engagement experience Top 10 case studies and articles World-class performance measures Diagnostic tools
10-42 Arthur Andersen’s Knowledge Base Customizable presentations Process definitions and directory of internal experts Best control practice Tax implementations
10-43 Managerial Issues Cost-benefit analysis Where to store data physically Disaster recovery Internal or external Data security and ethics Data purging
10-44 Managerial Issues The legacy data problem Data delivery Privacy
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